knowledge, intelligence insight, conviction, recognition, opp. añāṇa avijjā, lack of k. or ignorance.
Ñāṇa in the theory of cognition:
it occurs in intensive couple-compounds with terms of sight as cakkhu (eye) & dassana (sight, view) e.g. in cakkhu-karaṇa ñāṇa-karaṇa “opening our eyes & thus producing knowledge” i.e. giving us the eye of knowledge (a mental eye) ‣See cakkhu, jānāti passati & compound ˚karaṇa: Bhagavā jānaṁ jānāti passaṁ passati cakkhu-bhūto ñāṇa-bhūto (= he is one perfected in knowledge) MN.i.111 = Cnd.2353h; natthi hetu natthi paccayo ñāṇāya dassanāya ahetu apaccayo ñāṇaṁ dassanaṁ hoti “through seeing & knowing,” i.e. on grounds of definite knowledge arises the sure conviction that where there is no cause there is no consequence SN.v.126 cp. also the relation of diṭṭhi to ñāṇa. This implies that all things visible are knowable as well as that all our knowledge is based on empirical grounds yāvatakaṁ ñeyyaṁ tāvatakaṁ ñāṇaṁ Cnd.2353m; yaṁ ñāṇaṁ taṁ dassanaṁ, yaṁ dassanaṁ taṁ ñāṇaṁ Vin.iii.91 ñāṇa + dassana (i.e. full vision) as one of the characteristics of Arahantship ‣See arahant ii.D. cp. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit jñānadarśana, e.g. Avs.i.210
Scope and character of ñāṇa:
ñ. as faculty of understanding is included in paññā (cp. wisdom = perfected knowledge) The latter signifies the spiritual wisdom which embraces the fundamental truths of morality & conviction (such as aniccaṃ anattā dukkhaṃ: Mil.42); whereas ñ. is relative to common experience (see Cnd.235#3 under cakkhumā, & on rel. of p. & ñ. Pts.i.59 sq.; Pts.i.118 sq. Pts.ii.189 sq.)
■ Perception (saññā) is necessary to the forming of ñāṇa, it precedes it (DN.i.185); as sure knowledge ñ. is preferable to saddhā (SN.iv.298); at Vin.iii.91 the definition of ñ. is given with tisso vijjā (3 kinds of knowledge); they are specified at Cnd.266 as aṭṭhasamāpatti-ñāṇa (consisting in the 8 attainments, viz jhāna & its 4 succeeding developments), pañc’ abhiññā (the 5 higher knowledges, see paññā & abhi˚), micchā (false k. or heresy). Three degrees of k. are distinguished at DN-a.i.100, viz. sāvaka-pāramī-ñāṇa, paccekabuddha˚ sabbaññuta˚ (highest k. of a relig. student k. of a wise man, & omniscience). Four objects of k (as objects of truth or sammādiṭṭhi) are enumerated as dhamme ñāṇaṃ, anvaye ñ., paricchede ñ., sammuti ñ at DN.iii.226, DN.iii.277; other four as dukkhe ñ. (dukkha-samudaye ñ., nirodhe ñ., magge ñ. (i.e. the knowledge of the paṭicca-samuppāda) at DN.iii.227; Pts.i.118 Vb.235 (= sammādiṭṭhi). Right knowledge (or truth is contrasted with false k. (micchā-ñāṇa = micchādiṭṭhi): SN.v.384; MN.ii.29; AN.ii.222; AN.v.327; Vb.392.
Ñāṇa in application:
Vin.i.35; DN.ii.155 (opp pasāda); SN.i.129 (cittamhi susamāhite ñāṇamhi vuttamānamhi); SN.ii.60 (jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇan ti ñ.: see ñ-vatthu); AN.i.219 (on precedence of either samādhi or ñ.); Snp.378, Snp.789, Snp.987 (muddhani ñāṇaṃ tassa na vijjati), Snp.1078 (diṭṭhi, suti, ñ.: doctrine, revelation personal knowledge, i.e. intelligence; differently expl at Cnd.266), Cnd.1113; Pv.iii.5#1 (Sugatassa ñ. is asādhāraṇaṃ) Pts.i.194 sq.; Pts.ii.244; Vb.306 sq. (ñ-vibhanga), Vb.328 sq. (kammassakataṃ ñ.); Ne.15 sq.; Ne.161 (+ ñeyya), Ne.191 (id.)
ñāṇaṃ hoti or uppajjati knowledge comes to (him) i.e. to reason, to arrive at a conclusion (with iti = that…) SN.ii.124 = SN.iii.28 (uppajjati) DN.iii.278 (id.); AN.ii.211≈; AN.iv.75; AN.v.195; SN.iii.154. See also arahant ii.D
Var. attributes of ñ.: anuttariya AN.v.37; aparapaccayā (k. of the non-effect of causation through lack of cause) SN.ii.17, SN.ii.78; SN.iii.135 SN.v.179, SN.v.422 sq. (= sammādiṭṭhi), same as ahetu-ñāṇa SN.v.126; asādhāraṇa (incomparable, uncommon k. AN.iii.441; Pv-a.197; akuppa DN.iii.273; ariya AN.iii.451 pariyodāta SN.i.198; bhiyyosomatta SN.iii.112; yathā bhūtaṃ (proper, definite, right k.) (concerning kāya etc.) SN.v.144; AN.iii.420; AN.v.37
knowledge of about or concerning, consisting in or belonging to, is expressed either by loc. or-˚ (equal to subj. or obj. gen.)
- with loc.: anuppāde ñ. DN.iii.214, DN.iii.274; anvaye DN.iii.226, DN.iii.277; kāye DN.iii.274; khaye DN.iii.214, DN.iii.220 (āsavānaṃ; cp. MN.i.23, MN.i.183, MN.i.348; MN.ii.38), DN.iii.275; SN.ii.30 Ne.15; cutûpapāte DN.iii.111, DN.iii.220; dukkhe (etc. DN.iii.227; SN.ii.4; SN.v.8, SN.v.430; dhamme DN.iii.226; SN.ii.58 nibbāne SN.ii.124 (cp. SN.iv.86)
- as-˚: anāvaraṇa˚ DN-a.i.100; ariya SN.i.228; AN.iii.451; khanti Pts.i.106 jātissara Ja.i.167; cutûpapāta MN.i.22, MN.i.183, MN.i.347; MN.ii.38 etc.; ceto-pariya DN.iii.100, & ˚pariyāya SN.v.160 dibbacakkhu Pts.i.114; dhammaṭṭhiti SN.ii.60, SN.ii.124; Pts.i.50; nibbidā Pts.i.195; pubbe-nivāsânusati MN.i.22 MN.i.248, MN.i.347; MN.ii.38, etc.; Buddha˚ Cnd.235#3; Pts.i.133 Pts.ii.31, Pts.ii.195; DN-a.i.100; sabbaññuta Pts.i.131 sq.; DN-a.i.99 sq.; Pv-a.197; sekha SN.ii.43, SN.ii.58, SN.ii.80, & asekha SN.iii.83
aññāṇa wrong k., false view, ignorance untruth SN.i.181; SN.ii.92; SN.iii.258 sq.; SN.v.126; AN.ii.11; Snp.347, Snp.839; Pts.i.80; Pp.21; Dhs.390, Dhs.1061; see avijjā & micchādiṭṭhi.
- -indriya the faculty of cognition or understanding Dhs.157;
- -ūpapanna endowed with k. Snp.1077 (= Cnd.266#b ˚upeta);
-karaṇa (adj.) giving (right) understanding enlightening, in combination with cakkhukaraṇa (giving (in)-sight, cp. “your eyes shall be opened and ye shall be knowing good and evil” genitive 35): kusalavitakkā anandha-karaṇā cakkhu˚ ñāṇa˚ Iti.82
■ (f.) -ī (of majjhimā-paṭipadā) SN.iv.331;
- -cakkhu the eye of k Pv-a.166;
- -jāla the net of k., in phrase ñāṇajālassa anto paviṭṭha coming within the net, i.e. into the range of one’s intelligence or mental eye (clear sight) Dhp-a.i.26 Dhp-a.ii.37, Dhp-a.ii.58, Dhp-a.ii.96; Dhp-a.iii.171, Dhp-a.iii.193; Dhp-a.iv.61; Vv-a.63;
-dassana “knowing and seeing,” “clear sight,” i.e. perfect knowledge; having a vision of truth, i.e. recognition of truth, philosophy, (right) theory of life, all-comprising knowledge. Defined as tisso vijjā (see above 2) at Vin.iv.26; fully discussed at DN-a.i.220, cp. also def. at Pts.ii.244
■ Vin.ii.178. (parisuddha˚; + ājīva, dhammadesanā veyyākaraṇa); Vin.iii.90 sq.; Vin.v.164, Vin.v.197; DN.i.76 ≈ (following after the jhānas as the first step of paññā, see paññā-sampadā); DN.iii.134, DN.iii.222 (˚paṭilābha), DN.iii.88 (˚visuddhi); MN.i.195 sq.; MN.i.202 sq., MN.i.482; MN.ii.9, MN.ii.31 Ne.17, Ne.18, Ne.28; see also *vimutti*˚;
- -dassin one who possesses perfect k. Snp.478;
- -patha the path of k. Snp.868;
- -phusanā experience, gaining of k. Dhp-a.i.230
- -bandhu an associate or friend of k. Snp.911;
- -bhūta in comb“ w. cakkhubhūta, having become seeing knowing, i.e. being wise SN.ii.255; SN.iv.94; AN.v.226 sq.
- -vatthūni (pl.) the objects or items of (right) knowledge which means k. of the paṭiccasamuppāda or causal connection of phenomena. As 44 (i.e. 4 × 11 all constituents except avijjā, in analogy to the 4 parts of the ariyasaccāni) SN.ii.56 sq., as 77 (7 × 11) SN.ii.59 sq. discussed in extenso at Vb.306–Vb.344 (called ñāṇavatthu);
- -vāda talk about (the attainment of supreme knowledge DN.iii.13 sq.; AN.v.42 sq.;
- -vippayutta disconnected with k. Dhs.147, Dhs.157, Dhs.270;
- -vimokkha emancipation through k. Pts.ii.36, Pts.ii.42;
- -visesa distinction of k., superior k. Pv-a.196;
- -sampayutta associated with k Dhs.1, Dhs.147, Dhs.157, etc.; Vb.169 sq., Vb.184, Vb.285 sq., Vb.414 sq.
from jānāti. See also jānana. *gené, as in Gr. γν ̈ω σις (cp. gnostic), γνώμη; Lat. (co)gnitio; Goth kunpi; Ogh. kunst; E. knowledge