form, figure, appearance, principle of form, etc.
Definitions. According to P. expositors rūpa takes its designation fr. ruppati, e.g. “ruppanato rūpaṃ” Vism.588; “ruppan’ aṭṭhena r.” Vb-a.3; “rūpa-rūpaṃ ruppana sabhāvena yuttaṃ” Cpd. 1567 (where ruppati is, not quite correctly, given as “change”), “ruppatī ti: tasmā rūpan ti vuccati” SN.iii.86; other defns are “rūpayatī ti rūpaṃ” (with cakkhu & the other 10 āyatanas) Vb-a.45; and more scientifically: “paresu rūp’ ādisu cakkhu-paṭihanana lakkhaṇaṃ rūpaṃ Vism.446
■ Of modern interpretations & discussions see e.g. ; Dhs. trsl. introd. ch. vi. (pp. 41–63, or 248–71) Dial. ii.244; Expos. 67n; Cpd. 270 sq. (where objections are raised to translation “form,” and as better (philosophical) terms “matter,” “material quality” are recommended). See also loka for similar etym
- (lit.) appearance, form, figure Dhs.597 sq. (= form either contrasted with what is unseen, or taken for both seen and unseen), 751; Mhvs.27, Mhvs.30 (sīha-vyagghādirūpāni representations of lions, tigers etc.); Mhvs.30, Mhvs.68 (ravicanda-tāra-rūpāni id.); Mhvs.36, Mhvs.31 (loha˚ bronze statue) Thag-a.257
■ Esp. beautiful form, beauty SN.iv.275; Pv.ii.9#58 (as one of the 10 attributes, with sadda etc. of distinction: see also below DN ii.a); Mil.285; Mhvs.20, Mhvs.4 (rūpa-māninī proud of her beauty); Pv-a.89- surūpa very beautiful Thag-a.72; durūpa of evil form ugly AN.ii.203 sq. (dubbaṇṇa +)
■ In phrase rūpaṃ sikkhati Vin.i.77 = Vin.iv.129 the meaning is doubtful; it may be “to study drawing, or arts & craft,” or (with Mrs. Rh. D.) “weights & measures,” or (w. Hardy “money changing.” It is said that through this occupation the eyes become bad; it is opposed to gaṇanā
- (-˚) of such & such a form, like, kind, of a certain condition or appearance. In this appln very frequent & similar to E -hood, or Ger -heit, i.e. an abstract formation Often untranslatable because of the latter character. It is similar to; kāya (cp. expln of ātura rūpa Vv.83#14 by abhitunna -kāya Vv-a.328), but not so much with ref. to life & feeling as to appearance and looks. E.g. aneka˚ Snp.1079 (= anekavidha Cnd.54) adissamāna˚ invisible Pv-a.6 (lit. with invisible form) ummatta˚ as if mad, under the appearance of madness like a madman Pv.i.8#1; Pv.ii.6#3; eva˚ in such a condition Pv.ii.1#5; tapassī˚ appearing to be an ascetic Pv.i.3#2 tāraka˚ the (shapes of the) stars Dhs.617; deva˚ as a deva Pv-a.92. Pleonastically e.g. in: anupatta˚ attaining Pv.iv.1#66; taramāna˚ quickly Pv.ii.6#2; yutta˚ fit Pv-a.157; sucitta˚ variegated Pv.i.10#9
■ Cases ad verbially: citta -rūpaṃ according to intention Vin.iii.161 Vin.iv.177; cetabba-rūpaṃ fit to be thought upon Ja.iv.157 (= ˚yuttakaṃ C.)
■ atta -rūpena on my own account SN.iv.97; godha- rūpena as an iguana Mhvs.28, Mhvs.9
- (as philos. t. t.) principle of (material) form, materiality visibility
■ There are var. groups of psychological and metaphysical systematizations, in which rūpa functions as the material, gross factor, by the side of other, more subtle factors. In all these representations of rūpa we find that an element of moral psychology overshadows the purely philosophical & speculative aspect. A detailed (Abhidhammatic) discussion of rūpa in var. aspects is to be found at Dhs § 585–980.
rūpa as āyatana or sense object. It is the object of the activity or sphere of the organ of sight (cakkhu) As such it heads the list of the 6 bāhirāni āyatanāni (see e.g. Cnd.p.238 A-E & āyatana3) with “cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā” (the others: sota → sadda, ghāna → gandha jivhā → rasa, kāya → phoṭṭhabba, mano → dhamma), cp. cakkhu-viññeyyā rūpā iṭṭhā kantā etc. DN.i.245; MN.i.266 cakkhunā rūpaṃ passati iṭṭha-rūpaṃ kanta-rūpaṃ etc SN.iv.126
■ see further: Vin.i.34 (sabbaṃ ādittaṃ cakkhuṃ ādittaṃ, rūpa ādittā etc. with sequence of other āyatanas); DN.ii.308 sq., DN.ii.336 sq.; MN.iii.18 (yaṃ kho rūpaṃ paṭicca uppajjati sukhaṃ somanassaṃ, ayaṃ rūpe assādo; cp. Pts.ii.109 sq.), MN.iii.291 (ye te cakkhu-viññeyyesu rūpesu avīta-rāgā etc.); Pts.i.79; Pts.ii.38 (rūpī rūpāni passatī ti vimokkho); Dhs.617, Dhs.653, Dhs.878; Tikp.28.
(metaphysically) as the representative of sensory or material existence:
- universally as forming the corporeal stratum in the world of appearance or form (rūpa- bhava) as compared with the incorporeal (arūpa -bhava) being itself above, and yet including the kāma- bhava (The kāmabhava is a subdivision of rūpabhava, which has got raised into a third main division.) This triad is also found in combinations with loka or dhātu (see dhātu 2 a & d), or; avacara. See e.g. DN.i.17; DN.iii.215 (˚dhātu), DN.iii.216 (˚bhava); Kv.370 sq. (˚dhātu); Dhs.499 (˚âvacara), Dhs.585 (˚dhātu); Vb.17 (˚āvacara), Vb.25 (as garu-pariṇāma & dandha-nirodha compd with arūpa). A similar sequence rūpa arūpa & nirodha; (i.e. nibbāna) in old verses at Snp.755; Iti.45, Iti.62 (rūpehi arūpā santatarā arūpehi nirodho santataro). On indriya-rūpa “faculty as form” see indriya B
- individually in the sphere of saṃsāra as one (i.e. the material quality) of the substrata of sensory individual existence or the khandhas They are the 5: rūpa-kkhandha, vedanā˚ saññā˚, sankhārā˚, viññāṇa˚; otherwise called rūp ūpādāna-kkhandha etc. (e.g. DN.iii.223, DN.iii.278; Vism.443) See khandha ii. B
■ In this property rūpa consists of 28 subdivisions, viz. the 4 (great) dhātūs (mahābhūtāni or else bhūta-rūpa primary matter) and 24 upādārūpāni (i.e. derivative forms or accidentals). These are given in extenso in the rūpakkhandha section of the Vism (pp. 443–450), also at Dhs.585; the 24 consist of cakkhu, sota, ghāna, jivhā, kāya, rūpa, sadda, gandha rasa, itthindriya, purisindriya, jīvitindriya, hadaya vatthu, kāya -viññatti, vacī-viññatti, ākāsa-dhātu (rūpassa) lahutā mudutā kammaññatā, upacaya santati jaratā aniccatā, kabaḷinkār’-āhāra; cp. defn at Ne.73: cātu-mahābhūtikaṃ rūpaṃ catunnaṃ ca mahābhūtānaṃ upādāya rūpassa paññatti. The rūpakkhandha shares with the others the qualities of soullessness, evanescence and ill (anattā, anicca dukkha); e.g. rūpañ ca h’ idaṃ attā abhavissa, na y’ idaṃ rūpaṃ ābadhāya saṃvatteyya Vin.i.13, cp similarly MN.iii.282 sq.; SN.iii.66; quoted and explained in detail at Vism.610; rūpaṃ aniccaṃ Vin.i.14; MN.i.228 MN.iii.18 (see [explained at Vism.610](/define/explained at Vism.610)); SN.iii.48, SN.iii.66, SN.iii.88; rūpe anicc’ ânupassanā Pts.ii.186 sq
■ See also DN.ii.301 DN.iii.233; Pts.i.23, Pts.i.53, Pts.i.104; Pts.ii.96, Pts.ii.102, Pts.ii.109 (rūpassa ādīnavo); Vb.1. sq., 12 sq. (in detail); Kv.11 sq. Vism.443 sq.; Tikp.33; Vb-a.2, Vb-a.3, Vb-a.32 sq. = SN.iii.142 (with var. similes); Dhp-a.iv.100
- in the making up of the individuality as such (nāma-rūpa), where in contrast with nāma (as abstract, logical, invisible or mind-factor) rūpa represents the visible (material factor, resembling kāya (cp. phrase nāma-kāya in same sense). The foll. are current defns of nāma-rūpa nāma-(kāya) = vedanā, saññā, cetanā, phassa, manasikāra (otherwise citta-sankhārā), rūpa(-kāya) = cattāro mahā-bhūtā catunnaṃ m-bhūtānaṃ upādāya rūpaṃ (otherwise kāya-sankhārā) SN.ii.4; SN.iii.59 sq.; Pts.i.183 with explains at Vism.558 & Vb-a.169. Defined at Ne.15: “ye phassa-pañcamakā dhammā: idaṃ nāmaṃ yāni pañc’ indriyāni rūpāni: idaṃ rūpaṃ, tad ubhayaṃ nāmarūpaṃ viññāṇa-sampayuttaṃ.” Discussed in detail also at Vism.562 (= Vb-a.173, Vb-a.174), 587–597; cp Dhs-a.392 (Expos. 500, where “mind-matter” is given as corresp. couple in translation, do. Cpd. 271 sq. “mind and body”). See also under paṭicca-samuppāda.
various references: DN.iii.102, DN.iii.212, DN.iii.225, DN.iii.244, DN.iii.273; MN.i.84 (Gotamo kāmānaṃ pariññaṃ paññāpeti, rūpānaṃ vedanānaṃ); SN.ii.198; SN.iii.11 (evaṃ-rūpo siyaṃ, evaṃ vedano etc.), SN.iii.101 (id., & the khandhas); Snp.867, Snp.874 Snp.943, Snp.1037, Snp.1121; Mnd.425; Tikp.36, Kp.38, Kp.54, Kp.262; Vism.625 (uppajjanaka˚).
- -ārammaṇa a visible thing as object Dhs.146, Dhs.365; Dhs-a.310 (cp. Expos. 407).
- -āvacara world of form sphere of matter (cp. Expos. 67, 216n, 264) Pv-a.163
- -ūpaga (satta) (a being) living in (bodily) form Iti.62; Snp.754.
- -ūpajīvinī f. a woman living on her beauty i.e. a harlot Pv-a.46, Pv-a.201.
- -ññu knowing (var.) bodily forms MN.i.220 = AN.v.347.
- -taṇhā craving after form DN.ii.309; DN.iii.216, DN.iii.244, DN.iii.280; Vb-a.179 (in det.).
- -dakkha one clever in forms, viz. an artist (accountant?) Mil.344 (in the Dhamma-nagara).
- -dhātu the element of form, material element Vism.486; Ne.32, Ne.97. See above D 2.
- -nimitta sign of form Pts.i.92.
- -patta beautiful Ja.i.61.
- -pamāṇika measuring by form (outward appearance), one of the 4 kinds of measurements which the world takes of the Tathāgata (see AN.ii.71 Pp.53), viz. rūpa˚, ghosa˚, lūkha˚, dhamma˚ Dhp-a.iii.113; the same four similarly at Snp-a.242.
- -pātubhāva appearance of form (see [as ˚antara˚ intermediate form](/define/as ˚antara˚ intermediate form)) Snp-a.245.
- -bhava material existence: see above D 2.
- -rāga lust after rebirth in rūpa DN.iii.234 (+ arūpa˚); Ne.28 (pañc’ indriyāni rūpīni rūpa-rāgassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.
- -rūpa material form (mutable material quality?) Cpd. 156, doubtful translation & expln
- -saññā perception of material qualities, notion of form DN.i.34 DN.ii.112 (explained in det. at Vism.328); DN.iii.224, DN.iii.244, DN.iii.253 Cnd.545; Dhs-a.200 (cp. Expos. 269).
- -saññin perceiving form DN.iii.260; Pts.ii.38; Snp.1113.
- -santati duration of material form Vism.431; Vb-a.21.
- -samussaya accumulation of form, complex form Thag-a.98
- -samāpatti attainment of beauty Ja.i.406.
- -sampatti beauty Ja.iii.187.
- -siri personal splendour Ja.i.60.
cp. Vedic rūpa, connected etymologically with varpa (Grassmann). The nom. pl. is rūpā & rūpāni.