to become, to be, exist, behave etc. (cp. Cnd.474 sambhavati jāyati nibbattati pātu-bhavati)

I. Forms

There are two bases used side by side, viz bhav˚; and (contracted) ho˚; the latter especially in the (later) Gāthā style and poetry in general, also as archaic in prose, whereas bhav˚ forms are older. On compounds with prepositions, as regards inflection, see Geiger, P.Gr. §§ 1312, 1513; and cp. anubhavati, abhibhavati abhisaṃ˚, pa˚ (see pahoti and pahūta), pari˚ vi˚, saṃ˚.

pres ind. bhavāmi Snp.511 & homi Ja.iii.260; 2nd bhavasi & hosī MN.iii.140; Vv.84#20; 3rd bhavati freq.; Snp.36 (where Cnd.474 with variant reading BB of Snp reads bhavanti; Divy p.294 also reads bhavanti snehāḥ as conjecture of Cowell’s for MSS. bhavati) Dhp.249, Dhp.375; & hoti freq.; 1st pl. homa Pv.i.11#8 2nd hotha Ja.i.307; 3rd bhavanti & honti; freq
imper 2nd sg. bhava Snp.337, Snp.340, Snp.701; Dhp.236; Thig.8 bhavāhi Snp.510; hohi Snp.31; MN.iii.134; Ja.i.32; Pv-a.89; 3rd sg. hotu Snp.224; Ja.iii.150; Pv-a.13; Mil.18. pl 1st med. bhavāmase Thag.1128; Snp.32; 2nd pl. bhavatha Ja.ii.218, bhavātha Snp.692; Dhp.144; hotha Dhp.243; Dhp.ii.141; Ja.ii.302; Dhp-a.i.57; 3rd pl. bhavantu Snp.145; hontu Ja.ii.4.
pot 1st sg. bhaveyyaṃ 2nd bhaveyyāsi Ud.91; Pv-a.11; 3rd bhave Snp.716 bhaveyya Ja.ii.159; Dhp-a.i.329, & hupeyya Vin.i.8 (for huveyya: see Geiger,

Pali Grammar

§ 39#6 & 1312); pl. 1st bhaveyyāma; 2nd bhavetha Snp.1073, 3rd bhaveyyuṃ Snp.906
ppr bhavaṃ Snp.92, & bhavanto Snp.968; f hontī Pv-a.79
fut 1st sg. bhavissāmi Pv-a.49 hessāmi Thig.460 (Thag-a.283 reads bhavissāmi); hessaṃ Thag.1100; Ja.iii.224; Pv.i.10#5; 2nd bhavissasi Pv-a.16, hohisi Pv.i.3#3; 3rd bhavissati Dhp.228, Dhp.264; Dhp-a.ii.82, hessati Ja.iii.279 & med.; hessate Mhvs.25 Mhvs.97, hehitī Bv.ii.10 = AN.i.4; Vv.63#32; & hossati (in pahossati fr. pahoti Dhp-a.iii.254); 1st pl. bhavissāma Dhp.200; 2nd hessatha SN.iv.179; 3rd bhavissanti freq
■ Cond. 1st sg. abhavissaṃ Ja.i.470; 2nd abhavissa Ja.ii.11; Ja.iii.30; 3rd abhavissa Iti.37; Vin.i.13; DN.ii.57; MN.iii.163; Ja.i.267; Ja.ii.112 (na bhavissa = nābhavissa?) 3rd pl. abhavissaṃsu Vin.i.13.
■ 1*st aor.* (orig. pret. of *huvati, cp. hupeyya Pot.; see Geiger

Pali Grammar

§ 131#2, 1622) 1st sg. ahuvā SN.i.36, with by-form (see aor.) ahuvāsiṃ Vv.82#6; 2nd ahuvā ibid., 3rd ahuvā Vv.81#24; Ja.ii.106 Ja.iii.131; 1st pl. ahuvāma MN.i.93; MN.ii.214, & ahuvamha ibid.; 2nd ahuvattha SN.iv.112; MN.i.445; Dhp-a.i.57. 2*nd aor.* (simple aor., with pret. endings): 1st sg. ahuṃ Pv.ii.3#2 (variant reading BB ahu) (= ahosiṃ Pv-a.83); 2nd ahu (sk abhūḥ) Pv.ii.3#5; 3rd ahū (Sk. abhūt) Snp.139, Snp.312, Snp.504 and passim; Pv.i.2#3, & ahu Pv.i.9#3; Pv.i.11#3; & bhavi Dhp-a.i.329 (pātubhavi); 1st pl. ahumhā (Sk. abhūma Pv.i.11#6, & ahumha Ja.i.362; Dhp-a.i.57. 3*rd aor.* (s aor.) 1st sg. ahosiṃ Thag.620; Ja.i.106; Vv-a.321; Pv-a.10 (= āsiṃ); 2nd ahosi Ja.i.107; 3rd ahosi Snp.835; Vin.i.23; 1st pl. ahesumha MN.i.265; 3rd ahesuṃ DN.ii.5; Vv.74#4; Ja.i.149; Dhp-a.i.327; & bhaviṃsu (Sk abhāviṣuḥ) Dhp-a.iv.15
■ Of medial forms we mention the 1st pl. pres. bhavāmahe Mhvs.i.65, and the 3rd sg pret. ahuvattha Vv-a.103
inf bhavituṃ Snp.552; hetuye Bv.ii.10
ger bhavitvā Snp.56, hutvā Snp.43 & hutvāna Snp.281
grd bhavitabba Ja.i.440; hotabba Vin.i.46; bhabba (Sk. bhavya); see sep. bhuyya see cpd. abhibhuyya
caus bhāveti see sep
pp bhūta.

Note. In compound with nouns or adjectives the final vowel of these is changed into ī, as in combination of the same with the root kṛ; e.g. bhasmībhavati to be reduced to ashes, cp. bhasmī-karaṇa s. v. bhasma, etc.

II. Meanings.

In general the meaning “to become, to get” prevails, but many shades of it are possible according to context & combinations. It is impossible & unnecessary to enumerate all shades of meaning, only a few idiomatic uses may be pointed out.

  1. to happen, to occur, to befall
  2. The fut bhavissati “is certainly,” “must be” Dhp-a.iii.171 (sātthikā desanā bh.); Mil.40 (mātā ti pi na bh.).
  3. Imper. hotu as adv. “very well” Mil.18 (hotu bhante very well, sir).
  4. aor. in meaning and as substitute of āsiṃ, pret. of as to be; etad ahosi this occurred to him Dhp-a.i.399 (assā etad ahosi “this thought struck her”).

bhū to become, cp. Sk. bhūmi earth; Gr. φύσις nature (physical), φύομαι to grow; Lat. fui I have been futurus = future; Oir. buith to be; Ags. būan = Goth bauan to live, Ger. bauen, also Ags. bȳldan = to build Lith. búti to be, būtas house Dhtp.1: bhū sattāyaṃ.