adverb as, like, in relation to, after (the manner of)
■ As prep. (with acc.): according (to some condition, norm or rule): yathā kāmaṃ (already Vedic) according to his desire, after his liking Pv-a.113, Pv-a.136; y. kālaṃ in time timely Pv-a.78; matiṃ to his own mind or intention Pv.iv.1#67; ruciṃ to his satisfaction, amply, satisfactorily Pv-a.88, Pv-a.126, Pv-a.242; vibhavaṃ acc. to their wealth i.e. plentifully Pv-a.53; sukhaṃ as they liked or pleased Pv-a.133. Sometimes with loc.: yathā padese “according to place,” in the right place Ja.iii.391. Or instr.: y. sattiyā as much as you can Dhp-a.i.92; y. manena from his heart, sincerely, voluntarily Dhp-a.i.42
■ Also with ger. yathā haritvā according to his taking (or reward: see under cpd. ˚bhata) Iti.14 (y. h. nikkhipeyya which Seidenstücker, not doing justice to context translates “so wie man etwas nimmt und dann wegwirft”). With foll. adj. expressing something like “as it were” and often untranslateable (see compounds)
■ As conjunction: “as if,” or “so that” yathā mata like dead Dhp.21; yathā na “in order that not”: Vism.31 (y. sarīre ābādhaṃ na uppādeti, evaṃ tassa vinodan’ atthaṃ); Dhp-a.i.311 (y. assa patitaṭthānaṃ na passāmi, tathā naṃ chaḍḍessāmi: so that I shall not see…, thus shall I throw him)
■ As adv. just, as, so, even; in combination with other particles yathā kathaṃ pana how so then, how is it then that SN.ii.283 (cp. yathā tathaṃ under compounds); yathā kiṃ viya somewhat like this Mil.91; yathā pana like as Dhp-a.i.158; yatha-r-iva (for yathā-iva) just as DN.i.90; yathā pi… evaṃ just as… so Dhp.51–Dhp.52
yatha -yidaṃ (for yathā-idaṃ) positive: “as just this,” “so that,” “e.g. ,” “like,” “i.e.”; after negation “but Iti.8, Iti.9 (na aññaṃ… yathayidaṃ); Snp.1092 (tvañ ca me dīpam akkhāhi, yathayidaṃ n’ âparaṃ siyā “so that there be no further ill”; cp. Snp-a.597). See also the enlarged forms seyyathā & seyyathīdaṃ
■ In correlation with tathā: the same… as, like… as, as… so; Pv.i.12#3 (yath’ āgato tathā-gato as he has come so has he gone). Often elliptically in direct juxtaposition: yathā tathā in whatever way, in such & such a manner; so and so, according to the occasion; also “correctly, truly, in reality” Snp.504 (tvaṃ h’ ettha jānāsi y. t. idaṃ); Pv-a.199 (y. t. vyākāsi). See yathā-tathaṃ under compounds About phrase yathā taṃ see yathātaṃ
■ For further refs. on the use of yathā see Indexes to Saṃyutta (S vi.81 s. v. yathābhūtaṃ) Anguttara (A. vi.91 ibid.); Sutta-Nipāta (Index p. 751) & Dhammapada.

  • -ānudhammaṃ according to the rules (leading to enlightenment) Snp.963, cp. Mnd.481.

  • -ānurūpa suitable proper Mhvs.28, Mhvs.42.

  • -ānusiṭṭhaṃ in accordance with what has been taught Dhp-a.i.158.

  • -ābhirantaṃ (adv nt. of ppr.) to (their) heart’s content, as much (or as long) as one likes Vin.iii.145; Snp.53; Dhp-a.i.385; Vv-a.181.

  • -āraddha [= ālabdha] as much as was to be had, sufficient Vin.iii.160.

  • -ārahaṃ (nt. adv.) as is fit or proper, seeming, fitful, appropriately, duly (cp Cpd. 1111, 1182) SN.i.226; Snp.403; Pv.ii.9#23; Pv-a.78 Pv-a.132 (yathā codanaṃ variant reading SS), Pv-a.287; Vv-a.139. So to be read at all Pv & Pv-a passages for T. yathā rahaṃ. Very freq. in Mvu. e.g. 3, 27; 5, 148; 7, 70; 14, 54 20, 8; 22, 58.

  • -ālaṅkata dressed as he was, in full (state-) dress Dhp-a.iii.79.

  • -āvajjaṃ “as if to be blamed,” i.e. (imitating) whatever is faulty, mimicry of deformities (as a forbidden pastime) DN.i.7 (= kāṇakuṇi-khañj’ ādīnaṃ yaṃ yaṃ vajjaṃ taṃ taṃ payojetvā dassana-kīḷā DN-a.i.86); Vin.ii.10.

  • -icchitaṃ according to one’s wish, as he liked, after his heart’s content Ja.i.27 (v. 188) = Bv.ii.179; is preferably to be read as yad- icchitaṃ at all Pv-a passages, e.g. Pv-a.3 (˚ṃ dento), Pv-a.110 (˚ṭhāna whichever place I like), Pv-a.265 (where T. has yat˚). The ed. of Mvu however reads yath˚; throughout; e.g. 7, 22; 22, 50.

  • -odhi as far as the limit, final utmost MN.i.37; Ja.iii.302.

  • -odhika to (its or their) full extent, altogether, only in phrase yathodhikāni kāmāni Snp.60 (cp. Cnd.526); Ja.iii.381 (C. not quite to the point with expln “attano odhivasena ṭhitāni,” giving variant yatodhikāni, with explanation “yato uparato odhi etesan ti yatodhikāni uparata-koṭṭhāsāni”); Ja.iv.487 (with better Commentary explanation: “yena yena odhinā thitāni tena tena ṭhitān eva jahissāmi, na kiñce avasissāmī ti attho”); Ja.v.392 (Commentary “yathāṭhita-koṭṭhasāni”)

  • -kamma (ṁ) according to one’s karma or action Ja.i.57 Ja.i.109 Ja.iv.1 Frequently in phrase yathā-kamm-ūpage satte (pajānāti) “(he recognises) the beings passing away (or undergoing future retribution) “according to their deeds” DN.i.82 MN.i.482 MN.ii.21; MN.iii.178 SN.ii.122 AN.iv.141 AN.iv.178 AN.iv.422 AN.v.35 Snp.587 Iti.99 and yathā-kamm-ūpaga-ñāṇa “the knowledge of specific retribution” Vism.433 sq.; Tika-Paṭṭhāna 321 Vb-a.373f. (˚catuttha)

  • -kāmaṁ according to wish, at random ‣See above; ˚ -karaṇiya to be done or dealt with ad lib., i.e. a victim, prey SN.ii.226 SN.iv.91 SN.iv.159 Iti.56

  • -kārin as he does Iti.122 (corresponding to tathāvādin)

  • - kālaṁ according to time, in one time Mhvs.5 180

  • -kkamaṁ according to order, in one order or succession Mhvs.4, 54; Sdhp.269

  • -cārin virtuous (for the usual yatacārin as indicated by Commentary explanationyata kāyādīhi sanyati: ‣See Brethren, p. 342!) Thag.981 (translation “Whoso according to his powers is virtuous”)

  • -ṭhita so-being, such such, as they are, as they were Ja.v.392 Vv-a.256

  • -tathaṁ according to truth, true & real (corresponding to yathā tathā adv. ‣See above) Iti.122 (here as nominative singular as he is in one respect, so in the other, i.e. perfect) Snp.1127 (= yathā ācikkhitabbaṁ tathā ācikkhi Cnd.527) Thag.708 (diṭṭhe dhamme yathātathe: is reading correct? perhaps better as yathātathā, cp. translation

    Psalms of the Brethren

    292: “the truths are seen e’en as they really are”) Dīpavaṁsa.iii.2 (so read for yathā-kathaṁ; variant reading has ˚tathaṁ) v.64 (pañhaṁ byākarohi yathātathaṁ)

  • -dhamma (used as adjective & adverb ; -ṁ “one according to the law,” i.e. as the rule prescribes; (nt.) according to the rule put down ‣See

    Vinaya Texts

    i.203; Geiger, Dhamma, p. 19, 67. Vin.i.135 (yo uddiseyya, yathā-dhammo kāretabbo) Vin.i.168 (yo pavāreyya, y- dhammo kāretabbo), Vin.i.191 (yo māreyya y- dh. k.); Vin.ii.67 (ubho pi yathādhammaṁ kārāpetabbā), Vin.132 (yo ajjhohareyya, y- dhammo kāretabbo); Vin.iv.126 (yo jānaṁ (i.e. knowing) yathādhammaṁ nihat’ âdhikaraṇaṁ punakammāya ukkoṭeyya pācittiyan ti i.e. a dispute settled in proper form; with explanation: y- dhammaṁ nāma dhammena vinayena satthu sāsanena kataṁ), Vin.iv.144 (na tassa.. mutti atthi yañ ca tattha āpattiṁ āpanno tañ ca yathādhammo kāretabbo, uttari c’ assa moho āropetabbo) cp. the following passages; as adjective: Vin.i.205 Vin.ii.132 Vin.ii.142 Vin.ii.263 MN.iii.10 Mil.195 as adverb: with paṭikaroti (to atone, make amends) Vin.i.173 Vin.i.315; Vin.ii.126; Vin.iv.19 DN.i.85 DN.iii.55 MN.iii.247 SN.ii.128 SN.ii.205 AN.i.103 AN.i.238 AN.ii.146; AN.iv.377; cp. yathādhammaṁ paṭigaṇhāti SN.i.239 AN.i.59 AN.i.103 At SN.iii.171 yathādhammaṁ is used in the sense of “according to the truth, or reality,” where yathā-bhūtaṁ takes its place; similarly at Thag.188

  • -dhota as if it were washed (so to speak), clean, unsoiled Dhp-a.i.196 cp. Mvu.i.301 yathā-dhauta

  • -pasādhanaṁ according to a clear state of mind, to one’s gratification Dhp.249 (= attano pasād’ ânurūpaṁ Dhp-a.iii.359)

  • -puggalaṁ according to the individual individually Pv.iii.5#1 (read yathāpu˚)

  • -pūrita as full as could be, quite full Ja.i.101

  • -phāsuka comfortable pleasant Dhp-a.i.8

  • -balaṁ according to one’s power or means Dhp-a.i.107 (variant reading ˚satti); Sdhp.97; Mhvs.5, 180

  • -buḍḍha ‣See -vuḍḍha

  • -bhataṃ is an unexplained α ̔́πας λεγομένον, difficult of analysis because occurring in only one ster. phrase, viz. yathā bhataṃ nikkhitto evaṃ niraye (& sagge) at MN.i.71; SN.iv.325 (where T. has yathāhataṃ, variant reading bhataṃ); AN.i.8, AN.i.105, AN.i.292, AN.i.297; AN.ii.71 AN.ii.83; Iti.12, Iti.14, Iti.26. We have analyzed it as y. bhataṃ in Corr. to pt. 3; vol. ii.100 (“according to his upbringing”), but we should rather deviate from this expln because the P. usage in this case would prefer the nom instead of the (adv.) acc. nt. It remains doubtful whether we should separate yathā or yath’ ābhataṃ Suggestions of a translation are the foll. 1 “as soon as brought or taken” (see Dict. s. v. ābhata); 2 “as one has brought” (merit or demerit); thus taking ābhataṃ as irregular ger. of ā + bhar, translation suggested by the reading āharitvā (yathâharitvā) in the complementary stanzas at Iti.12 & Iti.14; 3 “according to merit or reward,” after Kern’s suggestion,


    s.v. to read yathā bhaṭaṃ, the difficulty being that bhaṭa is nowhere found as variant reading of bhata in this phrase; nor that bhaṭa occurs in the meaning of “reward.”
    ■ There is a strong likelihood of (ā)bhata resembling āhata (āhaṭa?) in meaning “as brought,” on account of, cp. Iti context and reading at SN.iv.325; still the phrase remains not sufficiently cleared up.
    ■ Seidenstūcker’s translation has been referred to above (under haritvā) as unbefitting.
    ■ The suspicion of yathābhataṃ being a veiled (corrupted) yathābhūtaṃ has presented itself to us before (see vol. I. under ābhata). The meaning may suggest something like the latter, in as far as “in truth, “surely” is not far off the point. Anyhow we shall have to settle on a meaning like “according to merit”, without being able to elucidate the phrase in all its details.
    ■ There is another yathābhataṃ in passage… ussavo hoti, yathābhataṃ lasuṇaṃ parikkhayaṃ agamāsi “the garlic diminished as soon as it was brought” Vin.iv.258. Here ābhata stands in rel. to harāpeti (to have it fetched & brought) and is clearly pp. of ābharati.

  • -bhucca as is the case, i.e. as one might expect, evident, real, in conformity with the truth DN.i.12; DN.ii.222; Mil.183, Mil.351; Thig.159 (= yathābhūtaṃ Thag-a.142); Pv-a.30, Pv-a.31 (˚guṇā).

  • -bhutta see bhutta.

  • -bhūta(ṃ) in reality, in truth, really, definitely absolutely; as ought to be, truthfully, in its real essence. Very freq. in var. combinations which see collected & classified as regards Saṃyutta & Anguttara-Nikāyas in Index vols to these texts. E.g. SN.iv.195 (vacanaṃ, epithet of nibbāna); SN.v.440 (abhisamaya); Snp.194, Snp.202, Snp.653; Dhp.203; Pv-a.215 (guṇa). yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti he knows as an absolute truth or in reality DN.i.83, DN.i.162; SN.iv.188 SN.v.304 & passim; ditto yathābhūtaṃ jānāti passati Pts.ii.62. Similarly with noun: yathābhūta-ñāṇa absolute knowledge SN.v.144; Pts.ii.63 = Vism.605 (+ sammādassana); Vism.438, Vism.629, Vism.695; Vb-a.459 (= maggañāṇa); also as ˚ñāṇa-dassana in same meaning: AN.iii.19, AN.iii.200; AN.iv.99, AN.iv.336; AN.v.2 sq., AN.v.311 sq.; Pts.i.33, Pts.i.43 sq. Pts.ii.11 sq.; Ne.29.

  • -mano according to (his) mind Snp.829; Mnd.170 (explained as nom. = yathācitto, yathāsankappo yathāviññāṇo).

  • -ruciṃ according to pleasure or liking Mhvs.4, Mhvs.43 (ruci T.; ruciṃ variant reading; thus generally in Mvu.); Mhvs.5, Mhvs.230 (˚ruci); Mhvs.22, Mhvs.58 (˚ruci).

  • -vādin as speaking, as he speaks (followed by tathā-kārin so doing) DN.ii.224, DN.ii.229; Snp.357; Iti.122.

  • -vidhi(ṃ) duly fitly Mhvs.10, Mhvs.79.

  • -vihita as appointed or arranged Mhvs.10, Mhvs.93.

  • -vuḍḍhaṃ according to seniority Vin.ii.221; Mhbv.90 (T. reads ˚buḍḍhaṃ).

  • -vutta(ṃ) as is said, i.e. as mentioned, aforesaid, of this kind Mhvs.34, Mhvs.57; Pv-a.45, Pv-a.116 (˚o puggalo).

  • -saka(ṃ) each his own, according to his (or her) own, respective(ly) Vism.525; Snp-a.8, Snp-a.9; Vv-a.7; Mhvs.5, Mhvs.230 (here simply “their own”).

  • -sata saintly (?), mindful Thag.981 (cp. yathā cārin & Brethren p. 342).

  • -satti(ṃ) according to one’s power SN.iv.348 (+ yathābalaṃ); Dhp-a.i.107 (variant reading for ˚balaṃ); Sdhp.97.

  • -satthaṃ according to the precepts as law ordains MN.iii.10 (perhaps an error for yathāsaddha).

  • -saddhaṃ acc. to faith, as is one’s faith Dhp.249.

  • -santhatika accepting whatever seat is offered DN.i.167; AN.iii.220; Pp.69; Thag.855 -˚anga one of the 13 dhutangas Mil.342, Mil.359; Vism.61, Vism.78.

  • -sukhaṃ according to ease, at ease, at will Thag.77; Dhp.326.

fr. ya˚; Vedic yathā; cp. kathā, tathā