pus, matter, corruption MN.i.57; MN.iii.90; SN.i.150; SN.ii.157; AN.i.34; Ja.ii.18; Mil.382; Pv-a.80
■ In detail discussed (as one of the 32 ākāras) at Vism.261, Vism.360; Kp-a.62; Vb-a.244
■ Often in combination pubba-lohita matter & blood, e.g. Snp.p.125; Snp.671; Ja.v.71; Dhp-a.i.319; as food of the Petas Pv.i.6#9; Pv.i.9#1 (lohita-pubba); Pv.i.11#8; Pv.ii.2#6. pubba-vaṭṭi a lump of matter Dhp-a.iii.117.

Vedic pūya → *pūva → *puvva → pubba (Geiger,

Pali Grammar

§ 46#1); cp. pūyati to smell rotten, Lat. pūs = E pus, Gr. πύχω to rot, πύον matter; Vedic pūti smelling foul; Goth. fūls = E. foul


adjective previous, former, before. The adj. never occurs in abs. forms by itself (for which see pubbaka), it is found either as-˚ or ˚-or in cases as adv. The phrase pubbam antam anissita Snp.849 is poetical for pubbantam.

  1. (-˚) having been before Ja.iii.200; na diṭṭha˚ not seen before Mnd.445; mātabhūta˚ formerly (been) his mother Pv-a.79; vuttha (gāma) formerly inhabited Dhp-a.i.15; as adv. bhūtapubbaṃ before any beings (existed) Vin.i.342; Dhp-a.i.102 and passim (see bhūta).
  2. (neg.) apubba (nt. what has not been before, something new Vv-a.117, Vv-a.287 acc. as adv. in phrase [apubbaṃ acarimaṃ](/define/apubbaṃ acarimaṃ) not earlier not after, i.e. simultaneously MN.iii.65; Pp.13 (= apure apacchā, ekappahāren’ evâti attho Pp-a 186).
  3. (cases adverbially) instr. pubbena in ˚âpara gradual MN.iii.79; acc. pubbaṃ see 1, 2, with abl. as prep. before Snp-a.549 (= purā); loc. pubbe in earlier times (also referring to previous births, cp. pure), in the past before SN.iv.307; Snp.831, Snp.949 (with pacchā & majjhe i.e. future & present); Pv.i.3#1; Pv.ii.2#2; Snp-a.290, Snp-a.385 Snp-a.453; Pv-a.4, Pv-a.10, Pv-a.39, Pv-a.40, Pv-a.100. With abl. as prep. before SN.ii.104. In compound with -nivāsa see sep. An old acc. f. *pūrvīṃ (cp. Prk. puvviṃ Pischel, Gr. § 103 we find in Cpd. anupubbikathā (q.v.). The compar pubbatara (“quite early”) occurs abs. at SN.iv.117 as nom. pl. “ancestors” (cp. Gr. οἱ πρότεροι), as loc. adv. at SN.i.22.
  • -aṅgin in f. ˚angī (cāru˚) at Ja.v.4 & read sabbangin.

  • -aṇṇa “first grain,” a name given to the 7 kinds of grain, as distinguished from aparaṇṇa, the 7 sorts of vegetables, with which it is usually combined; Vin.iii.151; Vin.iv.267; Mnd.248 (where the 7 are enumerated); Cnd.314; Ja.ii.185; Mil.106; DN-a.i.78, DN-a.i.270; Dhp-a.iv.81 etc. (see aparaṇṇa). See also bīja-bīja

  • -aṇha the former part of the day, forenoon, morning (as contrasted with majjhaṇha & sāyaṇha) DN.i.109, DN.i.226; AN.i.294; AN.iii.344; SN.i.76 (˚samayaṃ); Snp-a.139 (id.) Dhp-a.iii.98; Pv-a.61, Pv-a.216. The spelling pubbanha MN.i.528 (cp. Trenckner, Notes 80).

  • -anta 1 the East Ja.i.98 (˚ato aparantaṃ aparantato pubbantaṃ gacchati from E. to W. from W. to E.); Ja.v.471 2 the Past (opp. aparanta the Future) DN.i.12 sq.; SN.ii.26; Mnd.212; Dhs.1004. pubbam antaṃ for pubbantaṃ is poetical at Snp.849.

  • -ânudiṭṭhi theory concerning the past or the beginning of things DN.i.13 (cp. DN-a.i.103); MN.ii.233; SN.iii.45; Dhs.1320.

  • -aḷha(ka) (āḷhaka) at Thig.395 is doubtful. T. reads bubbuḷaka, Mrs. Rh. D. translates “bubble of film”; Thag-a.259 explains by “ṭhita-jalapubbaḷha-sadisa.”

  • -ācariya 1 an ancient teacher, a scholar of previous times AN.i.132; AN.ii.70; Iti.110; Vism.523 = Vb-a.130; Kp-a.11, Kp-a.64, Kp-a.65 2 a former teacher Snp-a.318.

  • -āciṇṇa (-vasena) by way of former practice, from habit Snp-a.413.

  • -āpara 1 what precedes and what follows, what comes first and what last (with ref. to the successive order of syllables and words in the text of the Scriptures) AN.iii.201 (˚kusala) Dhp.352; Ne.3 (˚ânusandhi); cp. BSk. pūrvāpareṇa vyākhyānaṃ karoti “explained in due order” Avs.ii.20 2 ˚rattaṃ “as in the former, so in the foll. night, i.e. without ceasing, continuous Thag.413. cp. pub baratt-âparattaṃ Dhp-a.iv.129.

  • -āpariya former future, first & last Ud.61 (˚vivesa);

  • -ābhoga previous reflection Thag-a.30.

  • -ārāma “Eastern Park,” Name of a locality east of Sāvatthi AN.iii.344; Snp.p.139 (cp. Snp-a.502).

  • -āsava former intoxication Snp.913, cp. Mnd.331.

  • -uṭṭhāna getting up before (someone else) either applied to a servant getting up before the master, or to a wife rising before her husband Vv-a.71, Vv-a.136.

  • -uṭṭhāyin “getting up earlier” (with complementary Ep pacchā-nipātin “lying down later”), see above DN.i.60 DN.iii.191; AN.iii.37; AN.iv.265 sq.; DN-a.i.168

  • abstr. ˚uṭṭhāyitā Ja.iii.406 (˚ādīhi pañcahi kalyāṇa dhammehi samannāgatā patidevatā) = Ja.v.88; Kp-a.173.

  • -uttara 1 preceding and following Kacc. 44. 47 2 “eastnorthern,” i.e. north-eastern Ja.v.38 (˚kaṇṇa N.E corner); (id.).

  • -kamma a former deed, a deed done in a former existence Cp.iii.11#3.

  • -kārin “doing before,” i.e. looking after, obliging, doing a favour AN.i.87; Pp.26 (= paṭhamaṃ eva kāraka Pp-a 204; Pv-a.114.

  • -kicca preiiminary function Vin.v.127 (cattāro pubbakiccā); cp. Cpd. 53.

  • -koṭṭhaka “Eastern Barn,” Npl. AN.iii.345.

  • -(n)gama 1 going before preceding AN.iii.108 (okkamane p.); MN.iii.71 sq. 2 “allowing to go before”; controlled or directed by giving precedence Dhp.2 (mano˚ dhammā = tena paṭhama-gāminā hutvā samannāgatā Dhp-a.i.35) Cnd.318 Pp.15 (paññā˚ ariyamagga = paññaṁ pure-cārikaṁ katvā Pp-a 194); Sdhp.547 (paññā˚). cp. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit pūrvangama Divy.333 (“obedient” Index)

  • -carita former life Snp-a.382 Snp-a.385

  • -ja born earlier, i.e. preceding in age Pv-a.57 (= jeṭṭhaka)

  • -ñāti former relative Pv-a.24

  • -deva a former god, a god of old, pl the ancient gods (viz. the Asuras) SN.i.224

  • -devatā an ancient deity AN.ii.70 Iti.110 (variant reading ˚deva)

  • -nimitta “previous sign,” a foregoing sign, prognostic, portent forecast Iti.76 (the 5 signs of decay of a god) Ja.i.11 (the 32 signs at the conception of a Buddha, given in detail on p. 51), Ja.i.48 Mil.298 (of prophetic dreams cp.


    p. 48) Vb-a.407 (in dreams) Dhp-a.ii.85

  • -pada the former, or antecedent, part (of a phrase Dhs-a.164

  • -parikamma a former action Snp-a.284 (opposite to pacchā-parikamma)

  • -purisa ancestor DN.i.93 DN.i.94

  • -peta a deceased spirit, a ghost (= peta DN.i.8 (˚kathā, cp. DN-a.i.90 &

    Dialogues of the Buddha

    i.14). pubbe pete is poetical at Pv.i.4#1 for pubbapete. cp. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit pūrvapreta Avs.i.149 ‣See Index p. 230; Divy.47 Divy.97

  • -bhāga “former part,” i.e. previous Pv-a.133 (˚cetanā opposite apara-bhāga-cetanā. Sinhala reading omit bhāga)

  • -bhāsin speaking obligingly (cp. pubbakārin) DN.i.116 (trsl “not backward in conversation”), DN-a.i.287 (bhāsanto va paṭhamataraṁ bhāsati etc.)

  • -yoga “former connection” i.e. connection with a former body or deed former action (and its result) Ja.v.476 Mil.2 (pubbayogo ti tesaṁ pubba-kammaṁ). Kern,


    s.v. remarks that it is frequent in Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit as pūrvayoga yoga = yuga synonym with pūrvakalpa), e.g. Saddh. Puṇḍ ch. vii.; Mvu.ii.287; Mvu.iii.175; and refers to Ind Studien 16, 298;


    1875, 5

  • -rattāparattaṁ the past and future time, the whole time, always AN.iii.70 Dhp-a.iv.129

  • -vāsana an impression remaining in the mind from former actions Snp.1009 Thag-a.31 (Tha-ap.v.8)

  • -videha Eastern Videha Kp-a.123 176 Snp-a.443

  • -sadisa an old (former) friend Dhp-a.i.57

Vedic pūrva, to Idg. *per, see pari & cp. Goth. fram = from; Gr. πρόμος first, Goth. fruma = As formo first, Av. pourvō, also Sk. pūrvya = Goth. frauja = Ohg. frō Lord, frouwa = Ger. frau. See also Lat prandium, provincia