1. understood SN.i.35 = SN.i.60 (su-dub-buddha very difficult to understand)
  2. having attained enlightenment, wise AN.iv.449; Pv-a.16 (buddh’ ādayo), Pv-a.60 (= ariya). Usually applied to the Bhagavant (Gotama) MN.i.386 (one of the adj. describing Gotama to Nigaṇṭha Nāthaputta); Snp.993. The true brāhmaṇa is buddha, e.g. Snp.622, Snp.643, Snp.646.

med- pass. pp. of bujjhati, cp. Epic Sk. buddha


  1. one who has attained enlightenment; a man superior to all other beings, human divine, by his knowledge of the truth, a Buddha. At AN.ii.38 the Buddha declares himself to be neither a god (deva) nor a Gandharva, nor a Yakṣa nor a man. The word Buddha is an appellative, not a proper name (na mātarā kataṃ etc., vimokkh’ antikaṃ etaṃ buddhānaṃ Bhagavantānaṃ bodhiyā mūle… paññatti Mnd.458 & Ps; i.174
    ■ There are 2 sorts of B’s, viz Pacceka-buddhas or Buddhas who attain to complete enlightenment, but do not preach the way of deliverance to the world, and Sammāsambuddhas, who are omniscient and endowed with the 10 powers (see bala) and whose mission is to proclaim the saving truth to all beings (cp. Mil.106). In this function the B’s are Satthāro or teachers, Masters. In his rôle of a preeminent man a Buddha is styled Bhagavā or Lord Buddho so Bhagavā MN.i.235; Pv.ii.9#60 = Dhp-a.iii.219-Besides the 18 dhammā and the 10 balāni they are gifted with the 4 vesārajjāni (AN.ii.9, cp. Mil.106) These teachers appear upon the earth from time to time; the approach of the birth of a B. (buddh’-uppāda) is hailed by the acclamation of the worlds, they live the houseless life and found an Order (Buddha-pamukha bhikkhu-sangha Snp.p.111; Snp.81, Snp.386; Mil.212; DN-a.i.242; Pv-a.19). The news that a B. has appeared upon earth is a cause of the greatest rejoicing: opportunity to see him is eagerly sought (Vin.ii.155; SN.i.210; DN-a.i.248). The B. is always born in a brāhmaṇa or khattiya family. It is impossible here to give all the references for the Buddhas or Buddhahood in general see e.g. Vin.iii.24 sq.; Dhp.182 sq., Dhp.194, Dhp.195 (= sammā sambuddhā Dhp-a.iii.252), Dhp.387; Ja.i.51; Ja.iii.128; Vism.442 (pubba-buddhā); Pv-a.20
    ■ The remembrance of former births a B. shares with other classes of privileged beings, only in a different (higher) degree. This faculty (in an ascending scale) is possessed by the foll. 6 classes titthiyā, pakati-sāvakā, mahā-sāvaka, agga-sāvakā pacceka-buddhā, buddhā (see Vism.411)
  2. The word Buddha is specially applied to the Buddha of the present world-age, Gotama by family-name. He is said to be the 25th of the series of former Buddhas (pubbā buddhā) SN.i.109, SN.i.140; SN.iv.52
    Seven Buddhas are mentioned in the earlier texts & frequently referred to (cp. the 7 Rishis of the Vedic period, see also under satta, No. 7). They are Vipassī, Sikhī, Vessabhū Kakusandha, Konāgamana, Kassapa and Gotama (DN.ii.5–⁠DN.ii.7; SN.ii.5–SN.ii.11; cp. Thag.491; Ja.ii.147). They are also mentioned in an old formula against snake-bites (Vin.ii.110). The (allegorical) names of the predecessors of these in former ages are Dīpankara, Kondañña, Mangala Sumana, Revata, Sobhita, Anomadassī, Paduma Narada, Padumuttara, Sumedha, Sujāta, Piyadassī Atthadassī, Dhammadassī, Siddhattha, Tissa, Phussa. The typical career of a Buddha is illustrated in the life of Gotama and the legends connected with his birth, as they appear in later tradition. Before his last existence he practised the 10 perfections (pāramitā q.v.) for many ages, & finally descended from the Tusita Heaven (see Buddhavaṃsa). He was born in a khattiya family and was distinguished by the 32 signs of a great man (Mahāpurisa-lakkhaṇāni see DN.ii.17 sq and similar passages; cp. Ud.48). His mother Māyā bore him painlessly and died seven days after his birth MN.iii.118 sq
    ■ The story of each of the 25 Buddhas is given in the Buddhavaṃsa, quoted in the introductory chapters of the Jātak’ aṭṭhakathā
    ■ Convinced that asceticism was not the way to enlightenment, he renounced austerities. He became enlightened when seated in meditation under an Assattha tree (Ficus religiosa, hence called Bodhi or Bo tree). At the supreme moment he was tempted by Māra, but vanquished the evil one. He was then ready to depart but resolved to remain in the world and preach the truth (MN.i.169; Vin.i.6; a rather diff. account AN.ii.20) That day he knew and proclaimed himself to be the Buddha and his career as a teacher began (MN.i.171; Vin.i.9; Snp.558)
    ■ Like all the other Sammā-sambuddhas he founded an Order, converting and gladdening men by his discourses. After a long life of teaching he attained Nibbāna (nibbānaṃ adhigacchi), and passed utterly away: SN.i.210; DN.ii.156; Snp.83, Snp.513 Snp.1133 sq.; Mil.96
    ■ The Epithets attributed to all the Buddhas are naturally assigned also to Gotama Buddha Out of the almost endless series of these we only give a few. He is adored as the highest and holiest of men (SN.i.47; SN.iii.84; loke anuttaro, lokassa aggo; Mil.70) He is the supremely wise, the conqueror of the powers of darkness, the teacher of gods (devas and yakkhas and men SN.i.50, SN.i.132, SN.i.206. SN.i.301; AN.i.142; AN.ii.33; AN.iii.65; Snp.157 sq. He is the ādicca-bandhu kinsman of the sun SN.i.186; and compared to a universal monarch (rājā cakkavattī) AN.i.76; AN.iii.150 and to the lion (sīha) the king of the animals AN.iii.122. He is buddha-vīra Thag.47; the refuge of all beings MN.ii.305; DN-a.i.233; Mil.95; further appaṭipuggala SN.i.134; his teaching leads to enlightenment, to self-conquest, to security deliverance MN.i.235; Snp.454, Snp.993; DN-a.i.230. He himself is not to be reborn (antima-sarīro with his last body) SN.i.210; he is vimutto, freed & has come to the end of sorrow AN.iv.258; SN.iii.65; full of compassion for all beings SN.i.25, SN.i.51; MN.ii.100; he is bhisakko the physician AN.iv.340; magga-ññu, magga-vidū, maggakovido SN.iii.66
    ■ Under Buddh’ anussati (Vism.198 sq. we find the famous formula Bhagavā Arahaṃ Sammāsambuddho vijjā-caraṇa-sampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisa-damma-sārathi Satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho Bhagavā (DN.i.49≈), analysed & exegetically discussed. Here (p. 209) “Buddha” is explained with the formula as found at Pts.i.174; Mnd.457. More explicitly with var. Epithets at the latter passage. This formula is one of the highest & most comprehensive characterisations of a Buddha, & occurs frequently in the Canon e.g. MN.i.179; SN.ii.69; SN.v.343
    ■ A khattiya by birth he is called a brāhmaṇa because he carries on the sacred tradition, and because he excels in wisdom, self-control and virtue Mil.225.

-ānubuddha enlightened after the Enlightened one Thag.679, Thag.1246 (trsld “who next to our Great Waked one was awoke”). -ānubhāva the majestic power of the B. Pv-a.38, Pv-a.171. -ānussati mindfulness of the B., one of the 6 anussatis (B.˚, dhamma˚, sangha˚, sīla˚ cāga˚, devatā˚) DN.iii.250, DN.iii.280; Vism.132 (where followed by upasamânussati and 4 other qualities making up the pīti-sambojjh’anga; see anussati), Vism.197 sq. (the 10, as mentioned under anussati). -aṅkura a nascent (lit sprouting) Buddha, one who is destined to be a B Dhp-a.i.83. -antara a Buddha-interval, the period between the appearance of one Buddha & the next Mil.3; Dhp-a.i.201 (the 4 last ones); Dhp-a.iv.201; Pv-a.10, Pv-a.14 Pv-a.21, Pv-a.47, Pv-a.191. -ārammaṇa having its foundation or cause in the B., in ˚pīti joy, caused by contemplation of a B Ja.iii.405; Vism.143 (here as ubbegā-pīti). -ūpaṭṭhāna B
■ worship Dhp-a.i.101; Pv-a.93. -uppāda the coming into existence of a Buddha, time or age in which a B was born (opp. buddh’ antara), a Buddha-period Ja.i.59 Mhbv.12; Vb-a.50; Thag-a.28. -kara making a B. bringing about Buddhahood Ja.i.20. -kāraka = ˚kara Mhbv.9. -kāla the time of a B. Vism.91 (Buddhakālo viya pavattati it is like the time of the B.) -kula Buddha-clan Snp-a.532 (B
■ pitā, ˚mātā ibid.). -kolāhala the announcement of a Buddha, one of the 5 kolāhalas (q.v.) Kp-a.121, cp. Ja.i.48. -khetta field or region of (or for the existence of) a Buddha Vism.414 (divided into 3 spheres: jātikkhetta, āṇākkhetta visayakkhetta, see khetta). -gata directed or referring to the B. SN.i.211 (sati); Dhp.296. -guṇa quality of a B., virtue, character of a Buddha Ja.i.27; Ja.ii.147 Bv.ii.177; Mbhv.80; Kp-a.121 (cp. App.). -cakkhu the eye of a Buddha, i.e. an eye (or the faculty) of complete intuition Vin.i.6; Thag-a.2; see discussed in detail at Mnd.359 = Cnd.235#4; cp. cakkhu. -ñāṇa knowledge of a B., which is boundless (cp. Saddh. 73 J.P.T.S. 1887, 40) Bv.i.64 (appameyya); x.5 (cuddasa) -dhamma Buddhahood Mil.276; pl. condition or attributes of a B. Ja.i.20; referred to as 6 at Mnd.143 Cnd.466 (bhāgī channaṃ ˚ānan ti Bhagavā), as 18 at Mil.105, Mil.285. Kern (Manual & Grundriss; iii.8, p. 63 gives (after Lal.183, Lal.343) the foll. 18 āveṇikadharmas (“extraordinary qualities”) as such: 1 seeing all things past, 2 present, 3 future, 4 propriety of actions of the body, 5 of speech, 6 of thought, 7 firmness of intuition, 8 of memory, 9 of samādhi 10 of energy, 11 of emancipation, 12 of wisdom 13 freedom from fickleness, 14 noisiness, 15 confusedness 16 hastiness, 17 heedlessness, 18 inconsiderateness -pañha the name given to one question asked by Sāriputta, which the paribbājikā Kuṇḍalakesī was unable to answer Dhp-a.ii.225. -pasanna finding one’s happiness, or believing in the B. Vin.iv.39. -putta son of the B. said of bhikkhus or arahants Mil.143 cp. SN.iii.83: puttā Buddhassa orasā. -bala the force of a B. (iddibala & paññā˚) Bu; i.3. -bījaṅkura a future B. Bv.ii.71. -bhāva condition of a B. enlightenment Ja.i.14, Ja.i.147 (abuddhabhāva un-buddhahood, of Devadatta); DN-a.i.1. -bhūmi the ground of Buddhahood Bv.ii.175. -manta mystic verses of a B. DN-a.i.248 -māmaka devotedly attached to the B. Dhp-a.i.206 (+ Dhamma˚, Sangha˚). -rakkhita saved by the B (Np.) Snp-a.534 (+ Dhamma˚). -rasmi (pl. ˚iyo) rays shining forth from the person of the Buddha; they are of 6 colours Ja.i.501; Snp-a.132; Mhbv.6, 15, 38; Vv-a.207; Dhs-a.13. -rūpa form or figure of the B. Vism.228 (Mārena nimmita, cp. Divy.162, Divy.166; Buddha-nirmāṇa the magic figure of the B.). -līḷha (& ˚līḷhā); deportment ease, grace of a Buddha Ja.i.54; Mhbv.39; Dhp-a.i.33; Dhp-a.ii.41. -vacana the word (teaching) of the Buddha Mil.17; Kp-a.13; Snp-a.274, Snp-a.331. -visaya the sphere (of wonder), the range, scope or power of a Buddha (cp. buddha-khetta) Dhp-a.i.33; Dhp-a.ii.199; Snp-a.154, Snp-a.228 -veneyya one able to be led to enlightenment, accessible to Buddha’s teaching Snp-a.15, Snp-a.331. -sāsana the teaching (instructions) of the B. Dhp.368, Dhp.381 -sukumāla delicate, sensitive (to fatigue), as Buddhas are Dhp-a.i.5.

= buddha1