number two.

A. Meanings

I. Two as unit

  1. with objective foundation:

    1. denoting a combination (pair, couple) or a repetition (twice). In this conn. frequent both objective & impersonal in mentioning natural pairs as well as psychologically contrasted notions. E.g. dvipad (biped), nāgassa dve dantā (elephants’ tusks), cakkhūni (eyes); dvija (bird), duvija (tooth), dijivha (snake) See also dutiya & dvaya
      ■ dve: kāmā, khiḍḍā, gatiyo (Snp.1001), dānāni (Iti.98), piyā, phalāni (Snp.896; Iti.39), mittā, sinehā etc. See Nd ii.under dve, cp. AN.i.47 AN.i.100; DN.iii.212–⁠DN.iii.214
    2. denoting a separation (in two, twofold etc.): see dvidhā & compounds
  2. with symbolic, sentimental meaning:

    1. only two (i.e. next to one or “next to nothing”), cp. the two mites of the widow (Mark xii. 42), two sons of Rachel (Gen. 30) dumāsika not more th an.2 months (Vin.ii.107); dvemāsiko gabbho (Pv.i.6#7); dvevācika; duvangula (see below)
    2. a few more than one, some, a couple (often intermediate between 1 & 3, denoting more than once, or a comparatively long, rather long, but not like 3 a; very long time): māsadvayaṃ a couple of months dvisahassa dīpā 2000 islands (= a large number) diyaḍḍhasata 150 = very long etc.; dvīhatīha (2 or 3 a couple of days) q.v.; dvirattatiratta (id. of nights) dvīsu tīsu manussesu to some people (Pv-a.47); dvatikkhattuṃ soveral times; cp. dvikkhattuṃ (more than once), dutiyaṃ (for the second time).

II. Two as unit

in connection with its own & other.

decimals means a complex plus a pair, which amounts to the same as a large & a small unit, or so to speak “a year & a day.” E.g. 12 (sometimes, but rarely 10 + 2, see sep.); - 32: rests usually on 4 × 8, but as No. of the Mahāpurisa-lakkhaṇāni it denotes 30 + 2 the great circle plus the decisive (invisible) pair; - 62 views of heresy: see diṭṭhi; also as a year of eternity 60 kappas + 2; - 92: as measure of eternity = 90 + 2 kappas = a year & a day.

III. Number twelve

  1. Based on natural phenomena it denotes the solar year (dvādasamāsako saṃvaccharo Vv-a.247).
  2. Connected with the solar cult it is used with human arrangements to raise them to the level of heavenly ones and to impart to them a superior significance. Thus:
    1. as denoting a set (cp. 12 months = companions of the Sun) it is the No. of a respectful holy, venerable group (cp. 12 sons of Jacob Gen. 35, 22 cakes as shewbread Lev. 25, 5; stones erected Josh. 4 8; apostles Math. 10, 2; patriarchs Acts 7, 8; companions of Odysseus Hom. Od. 9, 195; Knights of Arthur etc.): of theras, accompd by 12 bhikkhus Pv-a.67, Pv-a.141. 179 etc.; dvādasa koṭisatāni Snp.677; five groups of 12 musicians Vv-a.96 (cp. 5 × 12 cromlechs in the outer circle of Stonehenge)
    2. as measure of distance in space & time it implies vast extent great importance, a climax, divine symmetry etc 12 yojanas wide extends the radiance Vv-a.16 Vv-a.12 y. as respectful distance Pv-a.137 (cp. 2000 cubits in same sense at Josh. 3, 4); Pv-a.12 y. in extent (height breadth & length) are the heavenly palaces of the Vimāna-petas or Yakkhas Vv.55#1; Ja.vi.116; Vv-a.6 Vv-a.217, Vv-a.244, Vv-a.291, Vv-a.298 etc. In the same connection we freq. find the No. 16: solasa-yojanikaṃ kanaka-vimānaṃ Vv.67#1; Vv-a.188, Vv-a.289 etc
      ■ Of years: Ja.iii.80; Vv-a.157 (dvādasa-vassikā; in this sense also 16 instead of 12 soḷasa-vassuddesika Vv-a.259 etc. See soḷasa).

B. Bases & Forms

I. dvi

main base for numeral nominal composition & derivation, in:

  1. numeral dve (& duve) two: nom. acc.; dve (Snp.p.107; Iti.98; Ja.i.150; Ja.iv.137 etc.) & (in verse); duve (Snp.896, Snp.1001); gen. dat. dvinnaṃ (Iti.39, Iti.40, Iti.98; Ja.ii.154) instr. dvīhi (Ja.i.87: variant reading dīhi; 151; ii.153); loc. dvīsu (Ja.i.203; Pv-a.47) & duvesu (Vv.41#2).

    1. as numeral base: -sahassa 2000 (see A I. 2b) Ja.i.57; Vv-a.261; Pv-a.74; also in dvittā and adv. dvikkhattuṃ twice & dvidhā in two parts
    2. as nominal base: (r)āvaṭṭa Sk. dviḥ cp. Lat. bis turning twice SN.i.32; -ja “twice born,” i.e. a bird Ja.i.152 (gaṇā) -jātin one who is born twice, i.e. a brāhmaṇa Thig.430 (Thag-a.269 = brahmajātin); -tālamatta of the size of 2 palms Dhp-a.ii.62; -pad [Sk. dvipad, Lat. bipes, Gr.δίπους etc.] a biped, man SN.i.6; -pala twofold Vism.339 -pādaka = dvipad Vin.ii.110; -bandhu having two friends Ja.vi.281; -rattatiratta two or three nights Vin.iv.16; also in dvīha two days (q.v.).
  2. as diaeretic form duvi˚-ja (cp. dija) “growing again” i.e. a tooth Ja.v.156.

  3. as contracted form di˚-(y)aḍḍha one and a half (lit. the second half, cp. Ger. anderthalb) Dhp.235; Ja.i.72 (diyaḍḍha-yojana-satika 150 y. long or high etc.) Ja.i.202; Ja.iv.293 (˚yāma); Dhp-a.i.395; DN-a.i.17; Mil.243 Mil.272; Dhs-a.12; -guṇa twofold, double Vin.i.289; Snp.714; Ja.v.309; Mil.84; Dhp-a.ii.6; Vv-a.63, Vv-a.120; -ja (cp. dvija, duvija)

    1. “twice-born,” a bird SN.i.224; Snp.1134 (d. vuccati pakkhī Cnd.296); Ja.i.152, Ja.i.203 Ja.ii.205; Ja.iv.347; Ja.v.157; Pv.ii.12#4; Vv.35#8 (cp. Vv-a.178) Mil.295
    2. a brahmin Thag-a.70, Thag-a.73; -jivha “twotongued,” i.e. a snake (cp. du˚) Ja.iii.347; -pad (-pada or-pa) a biped (cp. dvi˚) AN.i.22; AN.v.21; Snp.83 (dipa-duttama), Snp.995 (id.) Snp.998; Dhp.273; -pādaka = ˚pad Thag.453 = Snp.205.
  4. as sec. cpd. form (with guṇa) dve˚; (and de˚) -caturaṅga twice fourfold-eightfold Thag.520 (˚gāmin); -patha a “double” path, a border path, the boundary between two villages Vv.53#17 (-sīmantika-patha Vv-a.241); -piccha having two tail-feathers Ja.v.341 (cp. de˚); -pitika having two feathers Ja.v.424 -bhāva doubling kacc. 21; -māsika two months old Pv.i.6#7; -vācika pronouncing (only) two words, viz Buddha & Dhamma (cp. tevācika, saying the whole saraṇa-formula), Vin.i.4; Ja.i.81; -sattaratta twice seven nights, a fortnight [cp. Sk. dvisapta] Ja.vi.230
    ■ See also der. fr. numer. adv. dvidhā, viz. dvejjha (& dejjha) dvedhā˚, dveḷhaka.

  5. as noun-derivation dvaya a dyad (q.v.).

II. du

reduced base in numeral and nominal compound & dern:

-(v)addhato from both sides (a distorted form of dubhato q.v.) Vv.64#19 (= dubhato Vv-a.281); -(v)aṅgika consisting of two parts Dhs.163; -(v)aṅgula & dvaṅgula; two finger-breadths or depths, two inches long, implying a minimum measure (see above AN I.2a) Vin.ii.107 Vin.iv.262; usually in cpds
kappa the 2 inch rule, i.e. a rule extending the allotted time for the morning meal to 2 inches of shadow after mid day Vin.ii.294 Vin.ii.306 -pannā wisdom of 2 finger-breadths, i.e. that of a woman SN.i.129 = Thig.60 (dvanguli˚, at Thag-a.66 as ˚saññā); -buddhika = ˚paññā Vv-a.96; -jivha twotongued (cp. di˚); a snake Ja.iv.330; Ja.v.82, Ja.v.425; -paṭṭa “double cloth” (Hind. dupaṭṭā; Kanarese dupaṭa duppaṭa; Tamil tuppaṭṭā a cloak consisting of two cloths joined together, see Kern,


i.179) Ja.i.119; Ja.iv.114, Ja.iv.379 (ratta˚); Dhp-a.i.249 (suratta˚) Dhp-a.iii.419 (˚cīvarā); -matta (about), Dhp-a.iii.2 in measure Mil.82 -māsika 2 months old or growing for 2 months (of hair Vin.ii.107; -vagga consisting of two Vin.i.58; -vassa 2 years old Vin.i.59; -vidha twofold, instr. duvidhena MN.iii.45 sq.; etc
■ Derivations from du˚ see sep. under duka (dyad), dutiya (the second), & the contamination forms; dubha (to) & dubhaya (for ubha & ubhaya).

III. dvā

(& reduced; dva), base in numeral compound only.

dvatikkhattuṃ two or three times Ja.i.506; DN-a.i.133, DN-a.i.264; Dhp-a.iv.38; dvādasa twelve (on meaning of this & foll. numerals see above AN II. & III.) Ja.iii.80 Ja.vi.116; Dhp-a.i.88; Dhp-a.iii.210; Vv-a.156, Vv-a.247 etc.; -yojanika Ja.i.125; Ja.iv.499; dvāvīsati (22) Vv-a.139; dvattiṃsa (32) Kp ii. (˚ākāra the 32 constituents of the body) Dhp-a.ii.88; Vv-a.39 etc.; dvācattālīsa (42) Cnd.15 Vism.82; dvāsaṭṭhi (Cnd.271#iii. & dvaṭṭhi (62) DN.i.54; SN.iii.211; DN-a.i.162); dvānavuti (92) Pv-a.19, Pv-a.21
Note. A singular case of dva as adv. = twice is in dvâhaṃ Snp.1116.

Sk. dvi, dva etc. Bases:
(I) dvi = Sk. dvi in dvipad = Lat. bipēs (fr. dṷipēs), Ags. twiféte; dvidant = bidens. Reduced to di (see B I.4) as in Gr. δδιπους (= dipad), Lat diennium & pref. dis-(cp. Goth. twis asunder, Ogh zwisk between)
(II) du (= dvi in reduced grade, cp Lat. du-plex, dubius etc.)
(III) dvā (& dva) = Sk dvāu, dvā, f. nt. dve (declined as dual, but the P (plural) inflexion from base I. see B I1); Gr. δύω, Lat duo; Oir. dāu, dā, f. dī; Goth. twai, f. twōs; Ags. twā (= E. two); Ohg. zwēne, zwō zwei. Also in cpd num. dva-daśa twelve = Gr. δ(* ̔́)ώδεκα = Lat. duodecim