1. as nt. subst. what? sotānaṃ kiṃ nivāraṇaṃ what is the obstruction? Snp.1032; kiṃ tava patthanāya what is it about your wish, i.e. what good is your wish? Vv-a.226; kim idaṃ this is what, that is why, therefore, Pv-a.11; often with su in dubitative question: kiṃ sū’ dha vittaṃ purisassa seṭṭhaṃ what then, is the best treasure of man in this world? Snp.181 or with nu: kiṃ nu kho what is it then (in series evañ nu kho, na nu kho, kathaṃ nu kho) Cnd.186
    ■ Gen kissa of what? Pv.i.9#1; Pv.ii.9#40 (= kīdisassa) and in kissa hetu on the ground of what i.e. why? Snp.1131; Pv.ii.8#1 (= kiṃ nimittaṃ)
    ■ Instr. kena by what or how is it that: kena ssu nivuto loko Snp.1032
    ■ Acc. kiṃ: kiṃ kāhasi what will you do? Snp.428; kiṃ āgamma kiṃ ārabbha on what grounds & for what reason? DN.i.13 DN.i.14, etc.; kiṃ nissita to what purpose Snp.1043
    ■ Loc. kismiṃ in what or what about: kismiṃ vivādo “what is the quarrel about?” DN.i.237; or kimhi, e.g. kimhi sikkhamāno in what instructed? DN.ii.241 (corresponds to ettha = in this). The ṃ of kiṃ in Sandhi is either elided or contracted or undergoes the usual Sandhi changes ki ha = kiṃ ha Kp-a.78, kissa = kiṃ assa Snp.1032; kīdisa (q.v.) = kiṃ disa; kiñci (see below) = kiṃ cid; kiṃ va a little: see kittaka.
  2. as interr. particle, introducing a question = Lat. nonne, Gr. α ̓́ν: kiṃ idāni pi dinne te labheyyuṃ? “Will they receive that which is given now?” Pv-a.22. So as disjunctive particle in comb with udāhu (whether-or): kiṃ-udāhu what (about this… or is it (otherwise), is it so… or is it not so (cp. πότερον η ̓́, Lat. utrum-an): kim imasmiṃ attabhāve pitaraṃ pucchasi udāhu atīte? “do you enquire about your father in this existence, or in a past one? Pv-a.38; kiṃ nakkhattaṃ kīḷissasi udāhu bhatiṃ karissasi “Will you take a holiday or will you work?” Vv-a.63
    ■ Very often modified and intensified by other exhortative particles: kiṃ aññatra (with abl.) unless (by), except for Snp.206 (see aññatra) kin nu kho why but why, why in the world? DN.ii.131; Ja.ii.159; Dhp-a.ii.91. As kimo in kimo nu why then? Ja.iii.373 Ja.v.479 (= kim eva); kimu Sdhp.137; kim pana = nonne kim pana bhante addasa? “Have you not seen? DN.ii.132; kim pana tvaṃ maññasi what then do you think = do you not think then, that?… Ja.i.171 kim aṅga how much more or less, i.e. far more, or far less Mil.274 as kim aṅga pana why then? MN.iii.181; Mil.23; Vism.233; kin ti how then? DN.ii.74; kin ti te sutaṃ have you not heard? DN.i.104; kintikaro kathankaro q.v.; kiñca (cp. kiñcâpi under kiñci) num-que, nonne; is it not that, rather Ja.i.135 (explained in c. by garahatte ca anuggahatthe nipāto)
    kiñci in comb. with yaṃ or yad: whatever; in other combination positive: some, neg.: na kiñci nothing; yad atthi kiñci whatever there is of… Snp.231; n’atthi kiñci there is nothing: see under atthi and kiñcana; kiñci n’atthi loke there is nothing in this world… Snp.1122. kiñcāpi whatever, however much: kiñcâpi te tattha yatā caranti “however much they endeavour in this Snp.1080; Ja.i.147; Iti.114; Kp-a.187, Kp-a.190. Same as disjunctive conjunction with foll. pana: (= Lat. quamvis kiñcāpi hi… pana although… yet Dhp-a.i.391; kiñcâpi with pot.… atha kho although-yet; it may be that-but SN.i.72.
  3. In composition (˚-) often implying doubt, uncertainty (“what is it, that is so & so?”), or expressing strangeness (: doubtful likeness), e.g. kinnara a kind of man (but not sure about it), a half-man kimpakka odd-looking or doubtful (poisonous) fruit kimpurisa a strange man (doubtful whether man or beast); cp. kiṃsuka.
  • -akkhāyin preaching what? in conn. with kiṃ vādin saying what? i.e. holding what views? AN.i.62

  • -atthaṃ for what purpose Ja.i.279.

  • -atthiya to what purpose Ja.iv.239; Mil.19; Vv-a.230; to any purpose, of any use SN.v.171;

  • -abhiñña having what name?

  • -kara doing whatever (his duty), a servant, in k˚-patissāvin an obedient servant DN.i.60 (cp. expln at DN-a.i.168; AN.iii.37; AN.iv.265 sq.; Thag-a.252;

  • -karaṇīya business occupation AN.iii.113, AN.iii.116, AN.iii.258; AN.v.24, AN.v.90, AN.v.338;

  • -kāraṇā (abl. of kāraṇa) by reason of what, i.e. why? Pv-a.25;

  • -kusalagavesin striving after that which is good MN.i.163 = MN.i.240;

  • -jacca of what caste? Snp.p.80;

  • -akkhāyin preaching what? in conn. with kiṃ vādin saying what? i.e. holding what views? AN.i.62

  • -pakka strange or unknown (doubtful fruit, in ˚rukkha a tree with odd fruit (i.e. poisonous fruit, cp. Rām. ii.66, 6; Kern,


    s. v. takes it to be Strychnos nux vomica) Ja.i.368.

  • -purisa 1 a wild man of the woods Ja.iv.254;, 2 = kinnara (q.v.) AN.i.77; Ja.v.42, Ja.v.416. f. kimpurisī Ja.v.215 Ja.v.216.

  • -phala = ˚pakka, in ˚rukkha a tree with unknown (poisonous) fruit Ja.i.271.

  • -rukkha what kind of tree Ja.v.203.

  • -vādin holding what view? AN.i.62;

  • -samācāra of what conduct, in comb. with;

  • -sīla of what character Snp.324 (= Snp-a.331).

nt. of rel. pron. ka