Citta1 & Citra

adjective variegated, manifold, beautiful; tasty, sweet, spiced (of cakes), Ja.iv.30 (geṇḍuka); Dhp.171 (rājaratha); Vv.47#9; Pv.ii.11#2 (aneka˚); Pv.iv.3#13 (pūvā = madhurā Pv-a.251). Citta (nt.) painting Thag.674
■ Snp.50 (kāmā = Cnd.240 nānāvaṇṇā), Snp.251 (gāthā); Ja.v.196 (geṇḍuka), Ja.v.241,
sucitta gaily coloured or dressed SN.i.226 (b); Dhp.151 (rājaratha); Pv.i.10#9 (vimāna).

-akkhara (adj.) with beautiful vowels SN.ii.267 (Cp ˚vyañjana); -attharaka a variegated carpet DN-a.i.256 -āgāra a painted house, i.e. furnished with pictures a picture gallery Vin.iv.298; -upāhana a gaily coloured sandal DN.i.7≈; -kata adorned, dressed up MN.ii.64; Dhp.147 = Thag.769; Dhp-a.iii.109 (= vicitta); -katha (adj.) = next SN.i.199 (+ bahussuta); -kathin a brilliant speaker, a wise speaker, an orator, preacher. Freq combined w. bahussuta (of wide knowledge, learned), e.g. paṇḍita… medhāvin kalyāṇapaṭibhāna SN.iv.375 samaṇa bahussuta c. uḷāra Vv.84#26
■ AN.iii.58; Ja.i.148; Mil.1, Mil.21; -kathika = ˚kathin AN.i.24; Thig.449 (+ bahussuta), explained at Thag-a.281 by cittadhammakatha -kamma decoration, ornamentation, painting Ja.iv.408; Mil.278; Vism.306; Pv-a.147; Dhs-a.334 (m.) a painter; -kāra a painter, a decorator (cp. rajaka) SN.ii.101 = SN.iii.152; Thig.256; -chatta at to be changed into ˚patta; -patta (adj.) having variegated wings,; -pāṭalī (f.) Name of a plant (the “pied” trumpet-flower) in the world of Asuras Ja.i.202; Dhp-a.i.280; -pekhuna having coloured wings Ja.i.207;; -bimba (-mukhi) (a woman whose face is) like a painted image Ja.v.452 (cp cittakata); -miga the spotted antelope -rūpa (nt.) a wonder, something wonderful as adv. ˚ṃ (to citta2?) easily Vin.ii.78 = Vin.iii.161; Vin.iv.177 Vin.iv.232; -latā the plant Rubia Munjista; ˚vana the R.M. grove, one of Indra’s gardens [Sk. caitraratha] Ja.i.52, Ja.i.104; Ja.ii.188;, etc.; -vitāna a bright canopy Dhp-a.iv.14; -vyañjana (adj.) with beautiful consonants (cp. ˚akkhara) SN.ii.267 = AN.i.73 = AN.iii.107 -sāṇī variegated cloth Ja.ii.290; Dhp-a.iv.14; -sālā a painted room or picture gallery DN-a.i.253; -sibbana with fine sewing; a cover of various embroidery Snp.304; Ja.iv.395;

to cetati; *(s)qait to shine, to be bright, cp. Sk. citra, Sk. P. ketu, Av. ciprō, Lat. caelum Ags. hador, Ohg. heitar, see also citta2



I. Meaning

the heart (psychologically), i.e. the centre & focus of man’s emotional nature as well as that intellectual element which inheres in & accompanies its manifestations; i.e. thought. In this wise citta denotes both the agent & that which is enacted (see kamma II. introd.), for in Indian Psychology citta is the seat & organ of thought (cetasā cinteti; cp. Gr. φρήν, although on the whole it corresponds more to the Homeric χυμός). As in the verb (cinteti) there are two stems closely allied and almost inseparable in meaning (see § III.), viz. cit & cet (citta & cetas); cp. ye should restrain, curb, subdue citta by ceto, MN.i.120, MN.i.242 (cp attanā coday’ attānaṃ Dhp.379 f.); cetasā cittaṃ samannesati SN.i.194 (cp. cetasā cittaṃ samannesati SN.i.194). In their general use there is no distinction to be made between the two (see § III.)

The meaning of citta is best understood when explaining it by expressions familiar to us, as: with all my heart heart and soul; I have no heart to do it; blessed are the pure in heart; singleness of heart (cp. ekagga); all of which emphasize the emotional & conative side or “thought” more than its mental & rational side (for which see manas & viññāṇa). It may therefore be rendered by intention, impulse, design; mood, disposition state of mind, reaction to impressions. It is only in later scholastic lgg. that we are justified in applying the term “thought” in its technical sense. It needs to be pointed out, as complementary to this view, that citta nearly always occurs in the singular (= heart) & out of 150 cases in the Nikāyas only 3 times in the plural (= thoughts). The substantiality of citta (cetas is also evident from its connection with kamma (heart as source of action), kāma & the senses in general.; On the whole subject see Mrs. Rh. D. Buddh. Psych Eth. introd. & Bud. Psy. ch. II.

II. Cases of citta (cetas)

their relation & frequency (enumerated for gram. purposes).

The paradigma is (numbers denoting %, not including compounds): Nom cittaṃ; Gen. (Dat.) cetaso (44%) & cittassa (9%); Instr cetasā (42%) & cittena (3%); Loc. citte (2%) & cittamhi (2%)
■ Nom.; cittaṃ (see below).
■ Gen. cittassa only (of older passages) in c˚ upakkileso SN.iii.232; SN.v.92; AN.i.207; c˚ damatho Dhp.35 & c˚ vasena MN.i.214; MN.iii.156
■ Instr. cittena only in SN i. viz. cittena nīyati loko p. 39 upakkiliṭṭha˚ p. 179; asallīnena c˚ p.159
■ Loc. citte only as loc. abs. in samāhite citte (see below) & in citte vyāpanne kāyakammam pi v. hoti AN.i.162; cittamhi only SN.i.129 & cittasmiṃ only SN.i.132
■ Plural only in Nom. cittāni in one phrase: āsavehi cittāni (vi) mucciṃsu “they purified their hearts from intoxications Vin.i.35; SN.iii.132; SN.iv.20; Snp.p.149; besides this in scholastic works = thoughts, e.g. Vb.403 (satta cittāni).

III. Citta & cetas; in promiscuous application.

There is no cogent evidence of a clear separation of their respective fields of meaning; a few cases indicate the rôle of cetas as seat of citta, whereas most of them show no distinction. There are compounds having both citta˚ ceto˚ in identical meanings (see e.g. citta-samādhi ceto˚), others show a preference for either one or the other, as ceto is preferred in ceto-khila & ceto-vimutti (but: vimutta-citta), whereas citta is restricted to combn w. upakkilesa, etc. The foll. sentences will illustrate this. Vivaṭena cetasā sappabhāsaṃ cittaṃ bhāveti “with open heart he contemplates a radiant thought” SN.v.263 = DN.iii.223 = AN.iv.86; cetasā cittaṃ samannesati vippamuttaṃ “with his heart he scrutinizes their pure mind” SN.i.194; vigatâbhijjhena cetasā is followed by abhijjāya cittaṃ parisodheti DN.iii.49 anupārambhacitto bhabbo cetaso vikkhepaṃ pahātuṃ AN.v.149; cetaso vūpasamo foll. by vūpasanta-citto AN.i.4; samāhite citte foll. by ceto-samādhi DN.i.13≈ cittaṃ paduṭṭhaṃ foll. by ceto-padosa AN.i.8; cp. Iti.12–Iti.13; cetaso tato cittaṃ nivāraye “a desire of his heart he shall exclude from this” SN.iv.195.

IV. Citta in its relation to other terms referring to mental processes.

  1. citta ≈ hadaya, the heart as incorporating man’s personality: hadayaṃ phaleyya, cittavikkhepaṃ pāpuṇeyya (break his heart, upset his reason) SN.i.126 cittaṃ te khipissāmi hadayan te phālessāmi id. SN.i.207 SN.i.214; Snp.p.32; kāmarāgena cittaṃ me pariḍayhati SN.i.188 → nibbāpehi me hadaya-pariḷāhaṃ Mil.318 (“my heart is on fire”); cp. abhinibbutatto Snp.343 = apariḍayhamāna-citto Snp-a.347; cittaṃ adhiṭṭhahati to set one’s heart on, to wish Dhp-a.i.327.

  2. citta as mental status, contrasted to

    1. physical status: citta → kāya, e.g. kilanta˚ weary in body mind DN.i.20 = DN.iii.32; ātura˚ SN.iii.2–⁠SN.iii.5; nikaṭṭha˚ AN.ii.137; ṭhita˚ steadfast in body & soul (cp. ṭhitatta SN.v.74; ˚passaddhi quiet of body & soul SN.v.66. The Commentators distinguish those six pairs of the sankhārākkhandha or the cetasikas: citta-kāya-passaddhi-lahutā, etc. as quiet, buoyancy, etc., of (a) the viññāṇakkhandha (consciousness), (b) the other 3 mental khandhas, making up the nāma-kāya (Dhs-a.150 on Dhs.62: Compendium of Phil. 96, n. 3); passaddha DN.iii.241, DN.iii.288

    2. intellectual status: citta → manas & viññāṇa (mind → thought & understanding). These three constitute the invisible energizer of the body alias mind in its manifestations: yañ ca vuccati cittan ti vā mano ti vā viññāṇan ti vā:

      1. ayaṃ attā nicco dhuvo, etc., DN.i.21;
      2. tatr’ assutavā puthujjano n’ âlaṃ nibbindituṃ, etc. SN.ii.94;
      3. taṃ rattiyā ca divasassa ca añña-d-eva uppajjati aññaṃ nirujjhati SN.ii.95, cf. Thag-a.1 on 125.

      ■ Under ādesanā-pāṭihāriya (thought reading): evam pi te mano ittham pi te mano iti pi te cittaṃ (thus is your thought & thus your mind, i.e. habit of thinking) DN.i.213 = DN.iii.103; AN.i.170
      ■ niccaṃ idaṃ cittaṃ niccaṃ idaṃ mano SN.i.53; cittena niyyati loko “by thoughts the world is led” SN.i.39 = AN.ii.177 (cp KS 55); apatiṭṭhita-citto ādīna-manaso avyāpaṇnacetaso SN.v.74; vyāpanna-citto paduṭṭha-manasankappo SN.iii.93; paduṭṭha-citto = paduṭṭha-manaso Pv-a.34, Pv-a.43.

  3. citta as emotional habitus:

    1. active = intention contrasted or compared with:

      1. will, citta as one of the four samādhis, viz. chanda, viriya, citta, vīmaṃsā DN.iii.77; SN.v.268; Vb.288
      2. action, citta as the source of kamma: citte vyāpanne kāyakammam pi vyāpannaṃ hoti “when the intention is evil, the deed is evil as well” AN.i.262; cittaṃ appamāṇaṃ… yaṃ kiñci pamāṇakataṃ kammaṃ, etc. AN.v.299

      ■ Esp. in contrast to kāya & vācā, in triad kāyena vācāya cittena (in deed & speech & will otherwise as k. v. manasā, see under kāya III.) SN.ii.231, SN.ii.271 = SN.iv.112. Similarly taṃ vācaṃ appahāya (cittaṃ˚, diṭṭhiṃ˚) SN.iv.319 = DN.iii.13 DN.iii.15; & under the constituents of the dakkhiṇeyyasampatti as khetta-sampatti, citta˚, payoga˚ (the recipient of the gift, the good-will, the means) Vv-a.30 Vv-a.32

    2. passive = mood, feelings, emotion, ranging with kāya & paññā under the (3) bhāvanā DN.iii.219; SN.iv.111; AN.iii.106; cp. MN.i.237; Ne.91; classed with kāya vedanā dhammā under the (4) satipaṭṭhānas DN.ii.95, DN.ii.100, DN.ii.299 sq.; SN.v.114, etc. (see kāya compounds). As part of the sīlakkhandha (with sīla ethics, paññā understanding) in adhisīla, etc. Vin.v.181; Pts.ii.243; Vb.325; cp. tisso sampadā, scil. sīla, citta, diṭṭhi (see sīla & cp. cetanā, cetasika) AN.i.269
      ■ citta & paññā are frequently grouped together, e.g. SN.i.13 = SN.i.165; DN.iii.269; Thag.125 sq. As feeling citta is contrasted with intellection in the group saññā citta diṭṭhi AN.ii.52; Pts.ii.80; Vb.376.

  4. Definitions of citta (direct or implied): cittan ti viññāṇaṃ bhūmikavatthu-ārammaṇa-kiriyādi-cittatāya pan’ etaṃ cittan ti vuttaṃ Dhp-a.i.228; cittan ti mano mānasaṃ Kp-a.153; cittaṃ manoviññāṇaṃ ti cittassa etaṃ vevacanaṃ Ne.54. yaṃ cittaṃ mano mānasaṃ hadayaṃ paṇḍaraṃ, etc. Dhs.6 = Dhs.111 (same for def. of manindriya, under § 17; see Buddh. Psych.). As rūpâvacara citta at Vism.376.

V. Citta in its range of semantical applications

  1. heart, will, intention, etc. (see I.)

    1. heart as general status of sensory-emotional being; its relation to the senses (indriyāni). A steadfast & constrained heart is the sign of healthy emotional equilibrium, this presupposes the control over the senses; samādahaṃsu cittaṃ attano ujukaṃ akaṃsu sārathī va nettāni gahetvā indriyāni rakkhanti paṇḍitā SN.i.26; ujugato-citto ariyasāvako AN.iii.285; ṭhita c SN.i.159≈; AN.iii.377 = AN.iv.404 (+ ānejjappatta); c. na kampati Snp.268; na vikampate SN.iv.71; opp. capalaṃ c. Dhp.33; khitta˚; a heart unbalanced AN.ii.52 (+ visaññin); opp.: avikkhitta˚ AN.v.149; Pv-a.26; c. rakkhitaṃ mahato atthāya saṃvattati a guarded heart turns to great profit AN.i.7; similarly: c. dantaṃ, guttaṃ, saṃvutaṃ ibid
      ■ cittaṃ rakkhetha medhāvī cittaṃ guttaṃ sukhāvahaṃ Dhp.36; cakkhundriyaṃ asaṃvutassa viharato cittaṃ vyāsiñcati… rūpesu SN.iv.78; ye cittaṃ saññamessanti mokkhanti Mārabandhanā “from the fetters of Māra those are released who control their heart” Dhp.37; pāpā cittaṃ nivāraye Dhp.116; bhikkhuno c. kulesu na sajjati, gayhati, bajjhati SN.ii.198 (cp. Schiller: “Nicht an die Güter hänge dein Herz”).

    2. Contact with kāma & rāga;: a lustful, worldly craving heart

      1. kāmā: kāmā mathenti cittaṃ Snp.50; SN.iv.210; kāmarāgena ḍayhāmi SN.i.188; kāme nâpekkhate cittaṃ Snp.435; mā te kāmaguṇe bhamassu cittaṃ Dhp.371; manussakehi kāmehi cittaṃ vuṭṭhapetvā SN.v.409; na uḷāresu kāmaguṇesu bhogāya cittaṃ namati AN.iv.392; SN.i.92; kāmāsavā pi cittaṃ vimuccati AN.ii.211, etc.; kāmesu c. na pakkhandati na ppasīdati na sanṭiṭṭhati (my h. does not leap, sit or stand in cravings) DN.iii.239; kāmesu tibbasārāgo vyāpannacitto SN.iii.93; kāmāmise laggacitto (divide thus!) Pv-a.107
      2. rāgā: rāgo cittaṃ anuddhaṃseti (defilement harasses his heart) SN.i.185; SN.ii.231 = SN.ii.271; AN.ii.126 AN.iii.393; rāga-pariyuṭṭhitaṃ c. hoti AN.iii.285; sārattacitto SN.iv.73; viratta˚ SN.iv.74; Snp.235; Pv-a.168.
      3. various:
        ■ patibaddha-c. (fettered in the bonds of ˚) AN.iv.60; Snp.37, Snp.65; Pv-a.46, Pv-a.151, etc
        pariyādinna˚ (grasping, greedy), usually combined w. lābhena abhibhūta: SN.ii.226, SN.ii.228; SN.iv.125; AN.iv.160; DN.iii.249
        upakkiliṭṭha˚; (etc.) (defiled) SN.i.179; SN.iii.151, SN.iii.232 sq. SN.v.92 (kāmacchando cittassa upakkileso); AN.i.207 AN.v.93 sq
        ■ otiṇṇa˚ fallen in love AN.iii.67; Snp-a.322.
    3. A heart, composed, concentrated, settled, self-controlled mastered, constrained

      1. c. pasīdati (pasanna-˚c) (a heart full of grace, settled in faith) SN.i.98; AN.i.207; AN.iii.248; Snp.434; pasanna˚: AN.iv.209, AN.iv.213; Snp.316, Snp.403, Snp.690, cp. c. pakkhandati pasīdati SN.iii.133; AN.iii.245; also vippasanna˚: SN.v.144; Snp.506; cp vippasannena cetasā Pv.i.10#10
      2. c. santiṭṭhati in set s. sannisīdati, ekodihoti, samādhiyati (cp. cetaso ekodibhāva) SN.ii.273; SN.iv.263; AN.ii.94, AN.ii.157
      3. c. samādhiyati (samāhita-c˚, cp. ceto-samadhi quiescence DN.i.13 = DN.iii.30, DN.iii.108; SN.i.120, SN.i.129, SN.i.188; SN.iv.78 = SN.iv.351; AN.i.164; AN.ii.211; AN.iii.17, AN.iii.280; AN.iv.177; Vb.227; Vism.376 etc
      4. supatiṭṭhita -c˚ always in formula catūsu satipaṭṭhānesu-s-c˚: SN.iii.93; SN.v.154; SN.v.301; DN.iii.101; AN.v.195
      5. susaṇṭhita c. SN.v.74
        vasībhūta c. SN.i.132; AN.i.165
        danta c. Dhp.35
    4. “with purpose of heart,” a heart set on, striving after, endeavouring etc

      1. cittaṃ namati (inclines his h. on, with dat appossukkatāya SN.i.137); nekkhamma-ninna SN.iii.233 viveka˚ DN.iii.283; AN.iv.233; AN.v.175
      2. cittaṃ padahati (pa + dhā: προ τίχητι) in phrase chandaṃ janeti vāyamati viriyaṃ ārabbhati c˚ ṃ paggaṇhāti padahati DN.iii.221; AN.ii.15 = AN.iv.462; SN.v.269; Cnd.97; Ne.18 In the same ṣense pa-ni-dahati (in paṇidhi, paṇihita bent down on) (cp. ceto-paṇidhi) SN.i.133 (tattha SN.iv.309 (dup˚); SN.v.157; Dhp.42 = Ud.39; Dhp.43 (sammā˚).
    5. An evil heart (“out of heart proceed evil thoughts Mk. 7, 21)

      1. paduṭṭha -c˚ (cp. ceto-padosa) DN.i.20 DN.iii.32; AN.i.8 (opp. pasanna-c˚); AN.iv.92; Iti.12, Iti.13; Pv-a.33, Pv-a.43, etc
      2. vyāpanna -c˚: citte vyāpanne kāyakammam pi vyāpannaṃ hoti AN.i.262. Opp. a˚ SN.iv.322; AN.ii.220
      3. samoha -c˚ (+ sarāga, etc. DN.i.79; DN.ii.299; DN.iii.281; Vism.410, & passim.
    6. blessed are the pure in heart,” a pure, clean, purified (cp. Ger. geläutert), emancipated, free, detached heart.

      1. mutta -c˚, vimutta - c˚, etc. (cp. cetaso vimokkho ceto-vimutti, muttena cetasā), āsavehi cittāni mucciṃsu SN.iii.132, etc.; vi˚ Snp.p.149
        ■ vimutta SN.i.28 (+ subhāvita), SN.i.29, SN.i.46 = SN.i.52; SN.iii.45 (+ viratta), SN.iii.90 SN.iv.236 (rāgā); Snp.23 (+ sudanta); Cnd.587
        ■ suvimutta: SN.i.126, SN.i.141, SN.i.233; SN.iv.164; AN.iii.245; AN.v.29; Snp.975 (+ satimā)
      2. cittaṃ parisodheti MN.i.347; AN.ii.211; SN.iv.104
      3. alīna c. (unstained) SN.i.159; AN.v.149; Snp.68; Snp.717; Cnd.97 (cp. cetaso līnatta).
    7. good-will, a loving thought, kindliness, tenderheartedness love (“love the Lord with all your heart”)

      1. metta -c˚ usually in phrase mettacittaṃ bhāveti “to nourish the heart with loving thought,” to produce good-will DN.i.167; SN.ii.264; AN.i.10; AN.v.81; Snp.507 (cp mettā-sahagatena cetasā)
      2. bhāvita -c˚ “keep thy heart with all diligence” (Prov. 4, 23) SN.i.188 (+ susamāhita); SN.iv.294; SN.v.369 (saddhā-paribhāvita); AN.i.6 (+ bahulīkata, etc.); Snp.134 (= SN.i.188); Dhp.89 = SN.v.29; Pv-a.139.
    8. a heart calmed, allayed, passionless (santa upasanta˚;) DN.iii.49; SN.i.141; Snp.746.

    9. a wieldy heart, a heart ready & prepared for truth an open & receptive mind: kalla˚, mudu˚, udagga˚ pasanna˚; AN.iv.186; kalla˚; Pv-a.38 (sanctified); lahu SN.i.201; udagga˚; Snp.689, Snp.1028; SN.i.190 (+ mudita) mudu˚ Pv-a.54.

    10. Various phrases. Abbhuta-cittajātā “while wonder filled their hearts” SN.i.178; evaṃcitto “in this state of mind” SN.ii.199; Snp.985; cittam me Gotamo jānāti (G. knows my heart) SN.i.178; theyya-citto intending to steal Vin.iii.58; āraddha-citto of determined mind MN.i.414; SN.ii.21, cp. SN.ii.107; Snp.p.102; aññācittaṃ upaṭṭhāpeti SN.ii.267; nānā˚ of varying mind Ja.i.295 nihīnacitto low-minded Pv-a.107; nikaṭṭha˚ AN.ii.137 āhata˚ AN.iv.460 = AN.v.18; supahata˚ SN.i.238 (cp. Mil.26); visankhāragata˚ Dhp.154; sampanna˚ Snp.164 vibbhanta˚ SN.i.61 = AN.i.70 = AN.ii.30 = AN.iii.391.

  2. thought: mā pāpakaṃ akusalaṃ cittaṃ cinteyyātha (do not think any evil thought) SN.v.418; na cittamattam pi (not even one thought) Pv-a.3; mama cittaṃ bhaveyya (I should think) Pv-a.40. For further instances see Dhs & Vb Indexes & cp. compounds See also remarks above (under I.). Citta likened to a monkey Vism.425.

-ādhipati the influence of thought (adj. ˚pateyya Ne.16; Dhs.269, Dhs.359; Dhs-a.213. Commentators define c. here as javanacittuppāda, our “thought” in its specialized sense, Compendium of Phil. 177, n. 2 -ānuparivattin consecutive to thought Dhs.671, Dhs.772 Dhs.1522; -ānupassanā the critique of heart, adj. ˚ânupassin DN.ii.299; DN.iii.221, DN.iii.281; MN.i.59 & passim (cp kāy˚); -āvila disturbance of mind Cnd.576 (˚karaṇa) -ujjukatā rectitude of mind Dhs.51, Dhs.277, etc.; -uppāda the rise of a thought, i.e. intention, desire as theyya -ṃ uppādesi he had the intention to steal (a thought of theft) Vin.iii.56; MN.i.43; MN.iii.45; Ja.ii.374; -ekaggatā “one-pointedness of mind,” concentration Ne.15, Ne.16 Vism.84, Vism.137, Vism.158; Dhp-a.iii.425; Thag-a.75; cp ekagga-citto AN.iii.175; -kali a witch of a heart, a witch-like heart Thag.356; -kallatā readiness of heart, preparedness of mind Vv-a.330; -kilesa stain of h. Dhp.88 (Dhp-a.ii.162 = pañca nīvaraṇā); -kelisā pastime of the mind Thag.1010; -kkhepa derangement of the mind, madness Vin.v.189 = Vin.v.193 (ummāda +); AN.iii.219 (ummāda +); Dhp-a.iii.70 (= ummāda); Pv-a.39; Dhp.138; cp. ˚vikkhepa; -cetasika belonging to heart & thought, i.e. mental state thought, mind DN.i.213; Dhs.1022 (-dhammā, Mrs Rh. D.: emotional, perceptual & synthetic states as well as those of intellect applied to sense-impressions) Dhs.1282; Pts.i.84; Mil.87; Vism.61, Vism.84, Vism.129, Vism.337 -dubbhaka a rogue of a heart, a rogue-like heart Thag.214; -pakopana shaking or upsetting the mind Iti.84 (dosa); -pamaddin crushing the h. Thig.357 (= Thag-a.243; variant reading pamāthin & pamādin;) -pariyāya the ways (i.e. behaviour) of the h. AN.v.160 (cp. ceto-paricca); -passaddhi calm of h., serenity of mind (cp. kāya˚;) SN.v.66; Dhs.62; -bhāvanā cultivation of the h. MN.iii.149; -mala stain of h. Pv-a.17; -mudutā plasticity of mind (or thought) Dhs.62, Dhs.277, Dhs.325 -rucita after the heart’s liking Ja.i.207; -rūpaṃ according to intention, as much as expected Vin.i.222; Vin.ii.78 Vin.iii.161; Vin.iv.177, Vin.iv.232; -lahutā buoyancy of thought Dhs.62, Dhs.323, Dhs.1283; Vism.465; -vikkhepa (cp. -kkhepa madness SN.i.126 (+ ummāda); Ne.27; Vism.34; -vippayutta disconnected with thought Dhs.1192, Dhs.1515; -visaṃsaṭṭha detached fr. thought Dhs.1194, Dhs.1517; -vūpasama allayment of one’s h. SN.i.46; -saṅkilesa (adj.) with impure heart (opp. c
■ vodāna) SN.iii.151; -saññatti conviction Mil.256; -santāpa “heart-burn,” sorrow Pv-a.18 (= soka); -samādhi (cp. ceto- samādhi) concentration of mind, collectedness of thought, self-possession SN.iv.350; SN.v.269; Vb.218; -samodhāna adjustment calming of thoughts Thag-a.45; -sampīḷana (adj.) h. crushing (cp. -pamaddin & ˚pakopana;) Ne.29 (domanassa). -sahabhū arising together with thought Dhs.670, Dhs.769, Dhs.1520. -hetuka (adj.) caused by thought Dhs.667, Dhs.767.

Sk. citta, orig. pp. of cinteti, cit, cp. yutta → yuñjati, mutta → muñcati. On etym. from cit. see cinteti


Name of the month Chaitra Pv-a.135. Cp. Citra-māsa Kp-a.192.

cp. Sk. caitra, the first month of the year: MarchApril, orig. Name of the star Spica (in Virgo); see E Plunket, Ancient Calendars, etc., pp. 134 sq., 171 sq.