- (adv. & prep.) beyond, on the further side of (with abl. or loc.), over Pv-a.168 (para Gangāya, variant reading ˚āyaṃ). See in same meaning & application paraṃ, paro and parā & cp. compounds like paraloka
- (adj.) para follows the pron. declension; cases sg. nom. paro Snp.879, acc. paraṃ Snp.132, Snp.185, gen. dat parassa Snp.634; Pv.ii.9#19, instr. parena Pv-a.116, loc paramhi Snp.634, and pare Pv.ii.9#43; pl. nom. pare Dhp.6, acc. pare Dhp.257; Pv-a.15, gen. dat. paresaṃ DN.i.3 Thag.743; Ja.i.256; Snp.818, instr. parehi Snp.240, Snp.255; Pv-a.17
- beyond, i.e. “higher” in space (like Ved. para as opp. to avara lower), as well as “further” in time (i.e. future, to come, or also remote past: see loc. pare under c.), freq. in phrase paro loko the world beyond, the world (i.e. life) to come, the beyond or future life (opp. ayaṃ loko) Snp.185 (asmā lokā paraṃ lokaṃ na socati), Snp.634 (asmiṃ loke paramhi ca); Dhp.168 (paramhi loke); Pv.ii.8#3 (id. = paraloke Pv-a.107); but also in other combination, like santi-para (adj. higher than calm Dhp.202. Cp. paraloka, paraṃ and paro
- another, other, adj. as well as n., pl. others Snp.396 (parassa dāraṃ nâtikkameyya), Snp.818 (paresaṃ cp. Mnd.150); Dhp.160 (ko paro who else), Dhp.257 (pare others); Pv.ii.9#19 (parassa dānaṃ); Pv.ii.9#43 (pare, loc. paramhi parassa Pv-a.130); Dhp-a.iv.182 (gen. pl.); Pv-a.15, Pv-a.60 (paresaṃ dat.), Pv-a.103, Pv-a.116, Pv-a.253 (parassa purisassa & paraṃ purisaṃ). Often contrasted with and opposed to attano (one’s own, oneself), e.g. at MN.i.200 (paraṃ vambheti attānaṃ ukkaṃseti); Snp.132 (attānaṃ samukkaṃse paraṃ avajānāti); Ja.i.256 (paresaṃ, opp. attanā) Cnd.26 (att-attha opp. par-attha, see compounds ˚ajjhāsaya & ˚attha)
■ paro… paro “the one… the other” DN.i.224 (kiṃ hi paro parassa karissati); paro paraṃ one another Snp.148 (paro paraṃ nikubbetha). In a special sense we find pare pl. in the meaning of “the others,” i.e. outsiders, aliens (to the religion of the Buddha), enemies, opponents (like Vedic pare DN.i.2 (= paṭiviruddhā sattā DN-a.i.51); Vin.i.349; Dhp.6
- some oblique cases in special meaning and used as adv.:
■ paraṃ acc. sg. m. see under compounds, like parantapa; as nt. adv. see sep. In phrase puna ca paraṃ would be better read puna c’ aparaṃ (see apara)
■ parena (instr.) later on, afterwards Ja.iii.395 (= aparena samayena C.)
■ pare (loc.); cp. Gr. παραί at; Lat prae before; Goth. faúra = E, for, old dat. of *per) in the past, before, yet earlier Ja.ii.279 (where it continues ajja and hiyyo, i.e. to-day and yesterday, and refers to the day before yesterday. Similarly at Vin.iv.63 pare is contrasted with ajja & hiyyo; and may mean “in future,” or “the day before yesterday.” It is of interest to notice the Ved. use of pare as “in the future opp. to adya & śvas); Ja.iii.423 (the day before yesterday). At Dhp-a.i.253 (sve vā pare vā) a nd.iv.170 in the sense of “on the day after tomorrow.”- parā (only apparently abl., in reality either para + a˚ which represents the vocalic beginning of the second part of the cpd., or para + ā which is the directional prefix ā emphasizing para. The latter expln is more in the spirit of the Pali language): see separately.
■ -paro (old abl. as adv. = Sk. paras) beyond further: see sep-
■ parato (abl.) in a variety of expressions and shades of meaning, viz. 1 from another, as regards others AN.iii.337 (attano parato ca); Ne.8 (ghosa), Ne.50 (id.) 2 from the point of view of “otherness,” i.e. as strange or something alien, as an enemy MN.i.435 (in “anicca”-passage); AN.iv.423; Cnd.214#ii; Pts.ii.238 Kv.400; Mil.418 and passim; in phrase parato disvā “seen as not myself” Thag.1160; Thag.2, Thag.101; SN.i.188 (sankhāre parato passa, dukkhato mā ca attato). 3 on the other side of, away from, beyond Ja.ii.128; Pv-a.24 (kuḍḍānaṃ) 4 further, afterwards, later on SN.i.34; Ja.i.255; Ja.iv.139; Snp-a.119, Snp-a.482
■ Note. The compounds with para˚ are combinations either with para 1 (adv. prep.), or para 2 (adj. n.). Those containing para in form parā and in meaning “further on to” see separately under parā˚. See also pāra, pārima etc.
-ajjhāsaya intent on others (opp. att˚) Snp-a.46 -attha (parattha, to be distinguished from adv. parattha q.v. sep.) the profit or welfare of another (opp. attattha) SN.ii.29; AN.iii.63; Dhp.166; Cnd.26. -ādhīna dependent on others DN.i.72 (= paresu adhīno parass’ eva ruciyā pavattati DN-a.i.212); Ja.vi.99; Thag-a.15 (˚vuttika) Vv-a.23 (˚vutti, paresaṃ bhāraṃ vahanto). -ūpakkama aggression of an enemy, violence Vin.ii.194. -ūpaghāta injuring others, cruelty Vv.84#40. -ūpaghātin killing others Dhp.184 (= paraṃ upahananto p. Dhp-a.iii.237). -ūpavāda reproaching others Snp.389. -kata see paraṅkata
■ kamma service of others, -kārin serving others Vv.33#22. -kāra see below under parankāra. -kula clan of another, strange or alien clan Snp.128; Dhp.73 -kkanta [para˚ or parā˚ *krānta?] walked (by another or gone over?) Ja.vi.559 (better to be read with variant reading on p. 560 as pada˚ i.e. walked by feet, footprint) -kkama (parā + kram ] exertion, endeavour, effort strife DN.i.53; DN.iii.113; SN.i.166 (daḷha˚); SN.ii.28 (purisa˚), SN.v.66, SN.v.104 sq.; AN.i.4, AN.i.50 (purisa˚); AN.iv.190; Snp.293; Dhp.313; Mnd.487; Ja.i.256; Ja.ii.153; Dhs.13, Dhs.12, Dhs.289, Dhs.571; Mil.244; Dhp-a.iv.139; Sdhp.253; adj. (-˚) sacca˚ one who strives after the truth Ja.iv.383. -kkamati [*parakramati] to advance, go forward, exert oneself, undertake show courage Snp.966 (ger. parakkamma); Dhp.383 (id.); Pv.iii.2#13 (imper. parakkāma, variant reading parakkama) Pp.19, Pp.23; Pv-a.184 (= payogaṃ karoti); Sdhp.439 -kkaroti [either for parā + kṛ; or more likely paras + kṛ; cp. paro] lit. “to put on the opposite side,” i.e. to remove, do away with Ja.iv.26 (corresponding to apaneti C. explains as “parato kāreti,” taking parato in the sense of para 2 c 3), Ja.iv.404 (mā parākari = mā pariccaji C.) -gatta alien body, trsl. “limbs that are not thou Thag.1150. -gavacaṇḍa violent against the cows of another AN.ii.109 = Pp.47 (opp. sakagavacaṇḍa, cp Pp-a 226: yo attano gogaṇaṃ ghaṭṭeti, paragogaṇe pana so rato sukhasīlo hoti etc.). -(n)kata made by something or somebody else, extra-self, extraneous, alien SN.i.134 (nayidaṃ attakataṃ bimbaṃ nayidaṃ parakataṃ aghaṃ); with ref. to loka & dukkha and opposed to; sayankata DN.iii.137 sq.; SN.ii.19 sq., SN.ii.33 sq., SN.ii.38 sq. Ud.69 sq. -(n)kāra condition of otherness, other people, alienity Ud.70 (opp. ahankara selfhood). -citta the mind or heart of others AN.v.160. -jana a stranger enemy, demon, fig. devil (cp. Sk. itarajana) MN.i.153, MN.i.210 -tthaddha [parā + tthaddha] propped against, founded on, relying on (with loc.) Ja.vi.181 (= upatthadda C.) -tthabbha is to be read for ˚tthambha at Ja.iv.313, in meaning = ˚tthaddha (kismiṃ). -dattūpajīvin living on what is given by others, dependent on another’s gift Snp.217; Mil.294. -davutta see sep. under parada -dāra the wife of another, somebody else’s wife MN.i.87; AN.ii.71 AN.ii.191; Snp.108, Snp.242 (˚sevanā); Dhp.246, Dhp.309 (˚upasevin, cp Dhp-a.iii.482); Ja.vi.240; Dhp-a.iii.481 (˚kamma). -dārika (better to be read as pāra˚) an adulterer SN.ii.188, SN.ii.259; Ja.iii.43. -dhammika “of someone else’s norm,” one who follows the teaching of another, i.e. of an heretic teacher Snp.965 (Mnd.485: p˚ ā vuccanti satta sahadhammika ṭhapetvā ye keci Buddhe appasannā dhamme appa nnā, sanghe appasannā). -niṭṭhita made ready by others SN.i.236. -nimmita “created by another,” in ˚vasavattin having power under control of another, Name of a class of Devas (see deva) DN.i.216 sq. AN.i.210; Iti.94; Pp.51; DN-a.i.114, DN-a.i.121; Kp-a.128; Vv-a.79. -neyya to be led by another, under another’s rule Snp.907 Mnd.321 (= parapattiya parapaccaya) -(n)tapa worrying or molesting another person (opp attantapa) DN.iii.232; MN.i.341, MN.i.411; MN.ii.159; Pp.56 -paccaya resting, relying, or dependent on someone else Mnd.321; usually neg. a˚ independent of another Vin.i.12, Vin.i.181 and passim. -pattiya = prec. Mnd.321. -pāṇa other living beings Snp.220. -puggala other people DN.iii.108. -putta somebody else’s son AN.iv.169; Snp.43 -pessa serving others, being a servant Snp.615 (= paresaṃ veyyāvacca Snp-a.466). -pessiyā a female servant or messenger, lit. to be sent by others Ja.iii.413 (= parehi pesitabbā pesanakārikā C.). -ppavāda [cp. BSk. parapravādin “false teacher” Divy.202] disputation with another, challenge, opposition in teaching (applied to Non-Buddhistic systems) SN.v.261; AN.ii.238; Mil.170 Mil.175. -bhāga outer part, precinct part beyond Pv-a.24 -bhuta [Sk. parabhṛta] the Indian cuckoo (lit. brought up by another) Ja.v.416 (so read for parābhūta). -bhojana food given by others Snp.366 (= parehi dinnaṃ saddhādeyyaṃ Snp-a.364). -loka cpd. either with para 1 or para 2 It is hardly justified to assume a metaphysical sense, or to take para as temporal in the sense of paraṃ (cp. paraṃmaraṇā after death), i.e. the future world or the world to come] the other world, the world beyond (opp. ayaṃ loko this world or idhaloka the world here, see on term Stede, Peta Vatthu p. 29 sq. DN.i.27, DN.i.58, DN.i.187; DN.ii.319; SN.i.72, SN.i.138; Snp.579, Snp.666, Snp.1117 Mnd.60; Cnd.214 (variant reading for paloka in anicca-passage), Cnd.410 (= manussalokaṃ ṭhapetvā sabbo paraloko); Pts.i.121; Vv.84#5 (= narakaṃ hi sattānaṃ ekantânatthatāya parabhūto paṭisattubhūto loko ti visesato paraloko ti Vv-a.335); Pv-a.5, Pv-a.60 (= pettivisaya parattha), Pv-a.64, Pv-a.107, Pv-a.253 (idhalokato p. natthi); Snp-a.478 (= parattha); Sdhp.316, Sdhp.326, Sdhp.327. -vambhitā contempt of others MN.i.19 (a˚). -vambhin contempting others MN.i.19, MN.i.527 -vasatta power (over others) Dāvs iv.19. -vāda 1 talk of others, public rumour SN.i.4; Snp.819 (cp. Mnd.151) Snp-a.475. 2 opposition Mil.94 sq. -vādin opponent Mil.348. visaya the other world, realm of the Dead Hades Pv.iv.8#7 (= pettivisaya Pv-a.268). -vediya to be known by others, i.e. heterodox DN.ii.241; Snp.474 (= parehi ñāpetabba Snp-a.410). -sattā (pl.) other beings AN.i.255 = AN.iii.17 (+ parapuggalā). -suve on the day after tomorrow Dhp-a.iv.170 (variant reading SS for pare, see para 2 c.). -sena a hostile army DN.i.89 = DN.ii.16 DN.iii.59 = Snp.p.106 ≈ (cp. DN-a.i.250 = Snp-a.450). -hattha the hand of the enemy Ja.i.179. -hiṃsā hurting others Pv.iii.7#3. -hita the good or welfare of others (opp. attahita) DN.iii.233; Pv-a.16, Pv-a.163. -hetu on account of others, through others Snp.122 (attahetu +) Pp.54.
fr. Idg. *per, *peri (cp. pari); Ved. para, parā, paraṃ; Lat. per through, Gr. πέρα & πέραν beyond; see Walde, Lat. Wtb. under per & also pari pubba, pura, purāṇa