the doing, deed, work orig. meaning (see karoti) either building (cp. Lit kùrti, Opr. kūra to build) or weaving, plaiting (still in mālākamma and latā˚ “the intertwining of garlands and creepers”; also in kamma-kara possibly orig employed in weaving, i.e. serving); cp. Lat. texo, to weave = Sk. takṣan builder, artisan, & Ger. wirken orig. weben. Grammatically karman has in Pāli almost altogether passed into the -a decl., the consonant forms for instr. & abl. kammā and kammanā gen. dat kammuno, are rare. The nom. pl. is both kammā and kammāni.

I. Crude meaning

  1. (lit.) Acting in a special sense i.e. office, occupation, doing, action, profession. Two kinds are given at Vin.iv.6, viz. low (hīna) & high (ukkaṭṭha) professions. To the former belong the kammāni of a koṭṭhaka and a pupphacchaḍḍaka, to the latter belong vāṇijjā and gorakkhā
    ■ Kamma as a profession or business is regarded as a hindrance to the religious life, & is counted among the ten obstacles (see palibodha). In this sense it is at Vism.94 expld by navakamma (see below 2a)
    kassa˚; ploughing, occupation of a ploughman Vism.284; kumbhakāra˚; profession of a potter Ja.vi.372; tunna˚; weaving Vism.122; Pv-a.161. purohita˚; office of a high-priest (= abstr n. porohiccaṃ) Snp-a.466; vāṇija˚; trade Sāsv. 40
    kammanā by profession Snp.650, Snp.651; kammāni (pl.) occupations Snp.263 = Kp.v.6 (anavajjāni k. = anākulā kammantā Snp.262). paresaṃ k˚ṃ katvā doing other people’s work = being a servant Vv-a.299; sa˚ pasutā bent upon their own occupations DN.i.135, cp. attano k˚-kubbānaṃ Dhp.217. kamma-karaṇa-sālā work-room (here: weaving shed) Pv-a.120.

  2. Acting in general, action, deed, doing (nearly always-˚)

    1. (active) act, deed, job, often to be rendered by the special verb befitting the special action like cīvara˚; mending the cloak Vv-a.250; uposatha˚ observing the Sabbath Vb.422; nava˚; making new renovating, repairing, patching Vin.ii.119, Vin.ii.159 (˚karoti to make repairs); Ja.i.92: Vism.94, adj. navakammika one occupied with repairs Vin.ii.15; SN.i.179; patthita˚ the desired action (i.e. sexual intercourse) Dhp-a.ii.49 kammaṃ karoti to be active or in working, to act nāgo pādehi k.k. the elephant works with his feet MN.i.414; kata˚; the job done by the thieves Dhp-a.ii.38 (corehi), as adj. kata˚ cora (& akata ˚cora) a thief who has finished his deed (& one who has not) Vism.180 also in special sense: occasion for action or work, i. e; necessity, purpose: ukkāya kammaṃ n’atthi, the torch does not work, is no good Vism.428.
    2. (passive) the act of being done (-˚), anything done (in its result) work, often as collect. abstr. (to be trsld. by E. ending-ing): apaccakkha˚; not being aware, deception Vb.85 daḷhī˚; strengthening, increase Vb.357, Vism.122 citta˚; variegated work, mālā˚; garlands, latā˚; creeper (-work) Vism.108; nāma˚; naming Bdhd 83; pañhā˚ questioning, “questionnaire” Vism.6
      ■ So in definitions niṭṭhuriya˚ = niṭṭhuriya Vb.357; nimitta˚ nimitta, obhāsa˚ = obhāsa (apparition → appearing) Vb.353
    3. (intrs.) making, getting, act, process (-˚) Often trsl. as abstr. n. with ending-ion or-ment, e.g. okāsa˚; opportunity of speaking, giving an audience Snp.p. 94; pātu˚; making clear, manifestation Dhp-a.iv.198
    4. anāvi˚, anuttāni˚ concealment Vb.358
    5. kata˚ (adj.) one who has done the act or process, gone through the experience Snp-a.355
    6. añjali˚, sāmīci˚ veneration honouring (in formula with nipaccakāra abhivādana paccuṭṭhāna) DN.iii.83 (≈ Vin.ii.162 Vin.ii.255) AN.i.123 AN.ii.180 Ja.i.218, Ja.i.219
  3. (Specialised) an “act” in an ecclesiastical sense proceedings, ceremony, performed by a lawfully constituted chapter of bhikkhus Vin.i.49, Vin.i.53, Vin.i.144, Vin.i.318; Vin.ii.70 Vin.ii.93; Vin.v.220 sq.; Khus J.P.T.S. 1883, 101. At these formal functions a motion is put before the assembly and the announcement of it is called the ñatti Vin.i.56, after which the bhikkhus are asked whether they approve of the motion or not. If this question is put once, it is a ñattidutiyakamma Vin.ii.89; if put three times, a ñatticatuttha˚ Vin.i.56 (cp. Vin. Texts i.169 n2) There are 6 kinds of official acts the Sangha can perform: see Vin.i.317 sq.; for the rules about the validity of these ecclesiastical functions see Vin.i.312–Vin.i.333 (cp Vin T. ii.256–285). The most important ecclesiastical acts are: apalokanakamma, ukkhepanīya˚ uposatha tajjaniya˚ tassapāpiyyasikā˚ nissaya˚, patiññākaraṇīya˚ paṭipucchākaraṇīya˚ paṭisāraṇiya˚ pabbājaniya˚ sammukhākaraṇīya˚
    ■ In this sense: kammaṃ karoti (w. gen.) to take proceedings against Vin.i.49, Vin.i.143, Vin.i.317 Vin.ii.83, Vin.ii.260; kammaṃ garahati to find fault with proceedings gone through Vin.ii.5; kammaṃ paṭippassambheti to revoke official proceedings against a bhikkhu Vin.iii.145.

  4. In compounds: -ādhiṭṭhāyaka superintendent of work inspector Mhvs.5, Mhvs.174; Mhvs.30, Mhvs.98; -ādhipateyya one whose supremacy is action Mil.288; -ārambha commencement of an undertaking Mhvs.28, Mhvs.21; -āraha entitled to take part in the performance of an “act” Vin.iv.153 Vin.v.221; -ārāma delighting in activity DN.ii.77; AN.iv.22; Iti.71, Iti.79; -ārāmatā taking pleasure in (worldly activity DN.ii.78 = AN.iv.22, cp. Vb.381; AN.iii.116, AN.iii.173 AN.iii.293 sq., AN.iii.330, AN.iii.449; AN.iv.22 sq., AN.iv.331; AN.v.163; Iti.71; āvadāna a tale of heroic deeds Ja.vi.295; -kara or -kāra used indiscriminately. 1 (adj.) doing work, or active in puriso dāso + pubbuṭṭhāyī “willing to work DN.i.60 et sim. (= DN-a.i.168: analaso). AN.i.145; AN.ii.67; Vv.75#4. 2 (n.) a workman, a servant (a weaver? usually in form dāsā ti vā pessā ti vā kammakarā ti vā Vin.i.243; DN.i.141 = Pp.56 (see ˚kārā); AN.ii.208 AN.iii.77, AN.iii.172; Thig.340; Ja.i.57. Also as dāsā pessā k˚kārā AN.iii.37 = AN.iv.265, AN.iv.393, and dāsā k˚ kārā Vin.i.240, Vin.i.272; Vin.ii.154; DN.iii.191; SN.i.92
    ■ a handyman Ja.i.239; Mil.378; f. a female servant Vin.ii.267 -kāra Vin.iv.224, kārī Dhs-a.98 = Vv-a.73 (appl. to a wife); -karaṇa 1 working, labour, service Ja.iii.219; Pv-a.120; DN-a.i.168 2 the effects of karma Ja.i.146 -karanā and kāraṇā see below; -kāma liking work industrious; a˚ lazy AN.iv.93 = Ja.ii.348; -kāraka a workman, a servant DN-a.i.8; Mhvs.30, Mhvs.42; Cnd.427 a sailor Ja.iv.139; -garu bent on work Mil.288; -ccheda the interruption of work Ja.i.149; Ja.i.246; Ja.iii.270; -jāta sort of action Ja.v.24 (= kammam eva); -dhura (m. nt. draught-work Ja.i.196; -dheyya work to be performed duty AN.iv.285 = AN.iv.325; cp. Ja.vi.297; -dhoreyya “fit to bear the burden of action” Mil.288 (cp. Mil. trsl. ii.140); -niketavā having action as one’s house or temple ibid.; -nipphādana accomplishing the business Ja.vi.162; -ppatta entitled to take part in an eccles act Vin.i.318; Vin.v.221; -bahula abounding in action (appl. to the world of men) Mil.7; -mūla the price of the transaction Mil.334; -rata delighting in business DN.ii.78; Iti.71; -vatthu objects, items of an act Vin.v.116; -vācā the text or word of an official Act. These texts form some of the oldest literature and are embodied in the Vinaya (cp. Vin.i.317 sq.; Vin.iii.174, Vin.iii.176 Vin.iv.153, etc.). The number of officially recognized k is eleven, see J.P.T.S. 1882, 1888, 1896, 1907; k˚ṃ karoti to carry out an official Act Mhvs.5, Mhvs.207; Dhs-a.399
    ■ ˚ṃ anussāveti to proclaim a k˚, to put a resolution to a chapter of bhikkhus Vin.i.317; -vossagga difference of occupation Ja.vi.216; -sajja(a) “ready for action,” i.e. for battle Ja.v.232; -sādutā “agreeableness to work” Dhs-a.151 (cp. kammaññatā & kamyatā) -sāmin “a master in action,” an active man Mil.288 -sippī an artisan Vv-a.278; -sīla one whose habit it is to work, energetic, persevering Mil.288; ; indolent lazy Ja.vi.245; a˚-ttaṃ indolence, laziness Mhvs.23, Mhvs.21 -hīna devoid of occupation, inactive Mil.288.

II. Applied (pregnant) meaning:

doing, acting with ref. to both deed and doer. It is impossible to draw a clear line between the source of the act (i.e. the acting subject, the actor) and the act (either the object or phenomenon acted, produced, i.e. the deed as objective phenomenon, or the process of acting, i.e. the deed as subjective phenomenon). Since the latter (the act) is to be judged by its consequences, its effects, its manifestation always assumes a quality (in its most obvious characteristics either good or bad or indifferent), and since the act reflects on the actor, this quality is also attached to him. This is the popular, psychological view, and so it is expressed in language, although reason attributes goodness and badness to the actor first, and then to the act. In the expression of language there is no difference between:

  1. the deed as such and the doer in character: anything done (as good or bad) has a corresponding source.
  2. the performance of the single act and the habit of acting: anything done tends to be repeated.
  3. the deed with ref. both to its cause and its effect: anything done is caused and is in itself the cause of something else.

As meanings of kamma we therefore have to distinguish the foll. different sides of a “deed,” viz.:

  1. the deed as expressing the doer’s will, i.e. qualified deed, good or bad.
  2. the repeated deed as expression of the doer’s habit = his character.
  3. the deed as having consequences for the doer, as such a source qualified according to good and evil; as deed done accumulated and forming a deposit of the doer’s merit and demerit (his “karma”).

Thus pāpakamma = a bad deed, one who has done a bad deed, one who has a bad character, the potential effect of a bad deed = bad karma. The context alone decides which of these meanings is the one intended by the speaker or writer.

Concerning the analysis of the various semantic developments the following practical distinctions can be made:

  1. Objective action, characterized by time as past = done, meaning deed (with kata); or future = to be done, meaning duty (with kātabba).

  2. Subjective action, characterized by quality, as reflecting on the agent.

  3. Interaction of act and agent:

    1. in subjective relation, cause and effect as action and reaction on the individual (individual “karma,” appearing in his life, either here or beyond), characterized as regards action (having results) and as regards actor (having to cope with these results):
    2. in objective relation, i.e. abstracted from the individual and generalized as Principle, or cause and effect as Norm of Happening (universal “karma,” appearing in Saṃsāra, as driving power of the world), characterized a as cause, b as consequence, c as cause-consequence in the principle of retribution (talio), d as restricted to time.
  4. (Objective): with ref. to the Past: kiṃ kammaṃ akāsi nārī what (deed) has this woman done? Pv.i.9#2 tassā katakammaṃ pucchi he asked what had been done by her Pv-a.37, Pv-a.83, etc
    ■ with ref. to the Future: k kātabbaṃ hoti I have an obligation, under 8 kusītavatthūni DN.iii.255 = AN.iv.332; cattāri kammāni kattā hoti “he performs the 4 obligations” (of gahapati) AN.ii.67.

  5. (Subjective)

    1. doing in general, acting, action deed; var. kinds of doings enum. under micchājīva DN.i.12 (santikamma, paṇidhi˚, etc.); tassa kammassa katattā through (the performance of) that deed DN.iii.156; dukkaraṃ kamma-kubbataṃ he who of those who act, acts badly SN.i.19; abhabbo taṃ kammaṃ kātum incapable of doing that deed SN.iii.225; sañcetanika k. deed done intentionally MN.iii.207; AN.v.292 sq. pamāṇakataṃ k. DN.i.251 = SN.iv.322. kataraṃ k˚ṃ karonto ahaṃ nirayaṃ na gaccheyyaṃ? how (i.e. what doing) shall I not go to Niraya? Ja.iv.340; yaṃ kiñci sithilaṃ k˚ṃ… na taṃ hoti mahapphalaṃ… SN.i.49 = Dhp.312 = Thag.277; kadariya˚ a stingy action Pv-a.25; k. classed with sippa, vijjā-caraṇa DN.iii.156 kāni k˚āni sammā-niviṭṭha established slightly in what doings? Snp.324.
    2. Repeated action in general, constituting a person’s habit of acting or character (cp kata ii.1. a.); action as reflecting on the agent or bearing his characteristics; disposition, character. Esp. in phrase kammena samannāgata “endowed with the quality of acting in such and such a manner, being of such and such character”: tīhi dhammehi samannāgato niraye nikkhitto “endowed with (these) three qualites a man will go to N.” AN.i.292 sq.; asucinā kāyak˚ena sam˚ asucimanussā “bad people are those who are of bad ways (or character)” Cnd.112; anavajja kāya-k˚ sam˚ AN.ii.69 (cp. AN.iv.364); kāya-kammavacī-kammena sam˚ kusalena (pabbajita) “a bhikkhu of good character in deed and speech” DN.i.63; kāya… (etc.)-k˚sam˚ bāla (and opp. paṇḍita) AN.ii.252 (cp. AN.i.102, AN.i.104); visamena kāya (etc.)-k˚ sam AN.i.154 = AN.iii.129; sāvajjena kāya (etc.)-k˚ sam˚ AN.ii.135-kammaṃ vijjā ca dhammo ca sīlaṃ jīvitam uttamaṃ, etena maccā sujjhanti, na gottena dhanena vā SN.i.34 = SN.i.55; MN.iii.262, quoted at Vism.3, where k is grouped with vipassanā, jhāna, sīla, satipaṭṭhāna as main ideals of virtue; kammanā by character, as opp to jaccā or jātiyā, by birth: Snp.136; Snp.164; Snp.599; nihīna manussā (of bad, wretched character) Snp.661; manāpena bahulaṃ kāya (etc.)-kammena AN.ii.87 = AN.iii.33, AN.iii.131 and esp. with mettā, as enum. under aparihāniyā and sārāṇīyā dhammā DN.ii.80; AN.iii.288; mettena kāya (etc.)-kammena DN.ii.144; DN.iii.191; AN.v.350 sq.
    3. Particular actions, as manifested in various ways, by various channels of activity (k˚-dvārā), expressions of personality as by deed, word and thought (kāyena vācāya, manasā). Kamma κα ̓τ ἐςοξήν means action by hand (body) in formula vacasā manasā kammanā ca Snp.330, Snp.365; later specified by kāya-kamma, for which kāya-kammanta in some sense (q.v.), and complementing vacī-k˚ mano-k˚; so in foll. combinations: citte arakkhite kāya-k˚ pi arakkhitaṃ hoti (vacī˚ mano˚ AN.i.261 sq.; yaṃ nu kho ahaṃ idaṃ kāyena k˚ kattukāmo idaṃ me kāya-k˚ attabyādhāya pi saṃvatteyya… “whatever deed I am going to do with my hands (I have to consider:) is this deed, done by my hands likely to bring me evil?” MN.i.415; kāya-(vacī-etc. kamma, which to perform & to leave (sevitabbaṃ and a˚) AN.i.110 = AN.iii.150; as anulomika˚ AN.i.106; sabbaṃ kāya-k˚ (vacī˚ mano˚) Buddhassa ñāṇânuparivattati “all manifestation of deed (word & thought) are within the knowledge of Buddha” Cnd.235; yaṃ lobhapakataṃ kammaṃ karoti kāyena vā vācāya vā manasā vā tassa vipākaṃ anubhoti… Ne.37; kin nu kāyena v˚ m dukkaṭaṃ kataṃ what evil have you done by body, word or thought? Pv.ii.1#3 and freq.; ekūna-tiṃsa kāyakammāni Bdhd 49.
    4. Deeds characterized as evil (pāpa-kammāni, pāpāni k˚, pāpakāni k˚; pāpakamma adj., cp. pāpa-kammanta adj.). pāpakamma: n’atthi loke raho nāma p˚ pakubbato “there is no hiding (-place) in this world for him who does evil” AN.i.149 so p˚-o dummedho jānaṃ dukkaṭaṃ attano… “he afflicted with (the result of) evil-doing…” AN.iii.354 p˚-ṃ pavaḍḍhento ibid.; yaṃ p˚-ṃ kataṃ sabban taṃ idha vedanīyaṃ “whatever wrong I have done I have to suffer for” AN.v.301; pabbajitvāna kāyena p˚-ṃ vivajjayī “avoid evil acting” Snp.407; nissaṃsayaṃ p˚-ṃ… “undoubtedly there is some evil deed (the cause of this) i.e. some evil karma Pv.iv.16#1
      pāpaṃ kammaṃ: appamattikam pi p˚ k˚ kataṃ taṃ enaṃ nirayaṃ upaneti “even a small sin brings man to N. AN.i.249, tayā v’etaṃ p˚ k˚ kataṃ tvañ ñeva etassa vipākaṃ paṭisaṃvedissasi “you yourself have done this sin you yourself shall feel its consequences” MN.iii.180; AN.i.139, na hi p˚ kataṃ k˚ sajju khīraṃ va muccati Dhp.71 = Ne.161; yassa p˚ kataṃ k˚ kusalena pithīyati so imaṃ lokaṃ pabhāseti “he will shine in this world who covers an evil deed with a good one” MN.ii.104; Dhp.173 = Thag.872; p˚-ssa k˚-ssa samatikkamo “the overcoming of evil karma” SN.iv.320; p˚ssa k˚ssa kiriyāya “in the performance of evil” MN.i.372; p˚āni k˚āni karaṃ bālo na bujjhati “he, like a fool, awaketh not, doing sinful deeds” Dhp.136 = Thag.146; pāpā p˚ehi k˚ehi nirayaṃ upapajjare “sinners by virtue of evil deeds go to N.” Dhp.307; te ca p˚esu k˚esu abhiṇham upadissare Snp.140. -pāpakāni kammāni: p˚ānaṃ k˚ānaṃ hetu coraṃ rājāno gāhetvā vividhā kammakāraṇā kārenti “for his evil deeds the kings seize the thief and have him punished” AN.i.48; ye loke p˚āni k karonti te vividhā kamma-kāraṇā karīyanti “those who do evil deeds in this world, are punished with various punishments” MN.iii.186 = AN.i.142; k˚ṃ karoti p˚ṃ kāyena vācā uda cetasā vā Snp.232 (= kh 190) similarly Snp.127; karontā p˚ṃ k˚ṃ yaṃ hoti kaṭukapphalaṃ “doing evil which is of bitter fruit” Dhp.66; SN.i.57 = Ne.131; k˚ehi p˚ehi Snp.215
      In the same sense: na taṃ k˚ṃ kataṃ sādhu yaṃ katvā anutappati “not well done is that deed for which he feels remorse” SN.i.57 = Dhp.67 = Ne.132; āveni-kammāni karonti (with ref. to sangha-bheda) AN.v.74; adhammikakammāni AN.i.74; asuci-k˚āni (as suggested by 5 and attributes: asuci, duggandha, etc.) AN.iii.269; sāvajjakammāni (as deserving Niraya) (opp. avajja → sagga AN.ii.237; kammāni ānantarikāni deeds which have an immediate effect; there are five, enumerated at Vb.378.
    5. deeds characterized as good or meritorious (kusala bhaddaka, etc.) taṃ k˚ṃ katvā kusalaṃ sukhudrayaṃ DN.iii.157; puñña-kammo of meritorious (character SN.i.143; kusalehi k˚ehi vippayuttā carati viññāṇacariyā Pts.i.80; kusalassa k˚ssa katattā Vb.173 sq. Vb.266 sq.; Vb.297 sq.; kusala-k˚-paccayāni Bdhd 12; puññakamma merit, compd with kapparukkha in its rewarding power Vv-a.32 (cp. puññânubhāva-nissandena “in consequence of their being affected with merit Pv-a.58) Cp. also compounds: kamma-kilesa, k˚-ṭṭhāna k˚-patha; k˚lakkhaṇa k˚-samādāna.
  6. (Interaction)

    1. in subjective relation.

      1. character of interaction as regards action; action or deed as having results: phala and vipāka (fruit and maturing); both expressions being used either singly or jointly, either˚-or independent; phala: tassa mayhaṃ atīte katassa kammassa phalaṃ “the fruit of a deed done by me in former times Thag-a.270; Vv.47#9 (= Vv-a.202); desanā… k-phalaṃ paccakkhakāriṇī “an instruction demonstrating the fruit of action” Pv-a.1; similarly Pv-a.2; cp. also ibid Pv-a.26, Pv-a.49, Pv-a.52, Pv-a.82 (variant reading for kammabala). vipāka: yassa k˚ssa vipākena… niraye pacceyyāsi… “through the ripening of whatever deed will you be matured (i.e. tortured in N.” MN.ii.104; tassa k˚ssa vipākena saggaṃ lokaṃ uppajji “by the result of that deed he went to Heaven SN.i.92; SN.ii.255; k-vipāka-kovida “well aware of the fruit of action,” i.e. of retribution Snp.653; kissa kvipākena “through the result of what (action)” Pv.i.6#5; inunā asubhena k-vipākena Ne.160; k-vipāka with ref. to avyākata-dhammā: Vb.182; with ref. to jhāna ibid. Vb.268, Vb.281; with ref. to dukkha ibid. Vb.106 k-vipāka-ja produced by the maturing of (some evil action, as one kind of ābādha, illness: AN.v.110 = Cnd.304#1; same as result of good action, as one kind of iddhi (supernatural power) Pts.ii.174
        ■ vipāka (adj.). asakkaccakatānaṃ kammānaṃ vipāko the reaper of careless deeds AN.iv.393; der. vepakka (adj.) in dukkha-vepakka resulting in pain Snp.537
        -phala + vipāka: freq. in form. sukaṭa dukkhaṭānaṃ kammānaṃ phalaṃ vipāko DN.i.55 = DN.iii.264 = MN.i.401 = SN.iv.348 = AN.i.268 = AN.iv.226 AN.v.265, AN.v.286 sq.; cp. J.P.T.S. 1883, 8; nissanda-phalabhūto vipāko Thag-a.270; tiṇṇaṃ k˚ānaṃ phalaṃ, tiṇṇaṃ k-ānaṃ vipāko DN.ii.186
      2. the effect of the deed on the doer: the consequences fall upon the doer, in the majority of cases expressed as punishment or affliction: yathā yathâyaṃ puriso kammaṃ karoti tathā tathā taṃ paṭisaṃvedissati “in whichever way this man does a deed, in the same way he will experience it (in its effect)” AN.i.249; na vijjati so jagati-ppadeso yathā ṭhito muñceyya pāpa-kammā “there is no place in the world where you could escape the consequences of evil-doing” Dhp.127 = Mil.150 = Pv-a.104, cp. Divy.532; so the action is represented as vedaniya, to be felt; in various combinations: in this world or the future state, as good or bad, as much or little AN.iv.382 the agent is represented as the inheritor, possessor, of (the results of) his action in the old formula: kammassakā sattā k-dāyādā k-yonī k-bandhū… yaṃ k˚ṃ karonti kalyānaṃ vā pāpakaṃ vā tassa dāyādā bhavanti MN.iii.203 = AN.iii.72 sq. = AN.iii.186 = AN.v.88~AN.v.288 sq. (see also compounds). The punishment is expressed by kammakaraṇa (or ˚kāraṇa), “being done back with the deed, or the reaction of the deed, in phrase kamma-karaṇaṃ kāreti or kārāpeti “he causes the reaction of the deed to take place” and pass, kamma-karaṇā karīyati he is afflicted with the reaction, i.e. the punishment of his doing. The 5 main punishments in Niraya see under kāraṇaṃ, the usual punishments (beating with whips etc.) are enumerated passim, e.g. MN.iii.164, MN.iii.181; and Cnd.604. [As regards form and meaning Morris J.P.T.S. 1884, 76 and 1893, 15 proposes kāraṇā f. “pain, punishment” fr. k̆ṛ̆ to tear or injure, “the pains of karma, or torture”; Prof. Duroiselle follows him, but with no special reason: the derivation as nt. causative-abstr. fr karoti presents no difficulty.] ye kira bho pāpakāni k˚-āni karonti te diṭṭh’ eva dhamme evarūpā vividhā k-kāraṇā karīyanti, kim anga pana parattha! “Those who, as you know, do evil are punished with various tortures even in this world, how much more then in the world to come!” MN.iii.181; MN.iii.186 = AN.i.142; sim k˚-kāraṇāni kārenti (variant reading better than text-reading SN.iv.344; Sdhp.7; Nd ii.on dukkha. As k-karaṇaṃ saṃvidahiṃsu Ja.ii.398; kamma-kāraṇa-ppatta one who undergoes punishment Vism.500. See also examples under 2d and MN.i.87; AN.i.47; Ja.v.429; Mil.197.
    2. in objective relation: universal karma, law of cause and consequence

      1. karma as cause of existence (see also d, purāṇa˚ and pubbe kataṃ k˚): compared to the fruitful soil (khetta), as substratum of all existence in kāma, rūpa, arūpa dhātu AN.i.223 (kāmadhātu-vepakkañ ce kammaṃ nâbhavissa api nu kho kāmabhavo paññāyethā ti? No h’etaṃ… iti kho kammaṃ khettaṃ…); as one of the 6 causes or substrata of existence AN.iii.410; kammanā vattati loko kammanā vattati pajā “by means of karma the world goes on, mankind goes on” Snp.654; kamma-paccayā through karma Pv-a.25 (= Kh.207); k˚ṃ kilesā hetu saṃsārassa “k. and passions are the cause of saṃsāra (renewed existence)” Ne.113; see on k. as principle Pts.ii.78; Pts.ii.79 (ch. vii., kamma-kathā) MN.i.372 sq.; Ne.161; Ne.180–Ne.182; k. as 3 fold: Bdhd 117; as 4 fold MN.iii.215 and as cause in general Vism.600 (where enumerated as one of the 4 paccaya’s or stays of rūpa, viz. k., citta, utu āhāra); Bdhd 63, Bdhd 57, Bdhd 116, Bdhd 134 sq.; Vb.366; Mil.40 sq. as a factor in the five-fold order (dhammatā or niyama) of the cosmos: k˚-niyama DA. on D 11, 12; Dhs-a. 272; Cp. compounds: kammaja (resulting from karma Bdhd 68, Bdhd 72, Bdhd 75; ˚-vātā, birth-pains i.e. the winds resulting from karma (caliṃsu) Dhp-a.i.165; Dhp-a.ii.262 k˚-nimitta Bdhd 11, Bdhd 57, Bdhd 62; k˚-sambhava Bdhd 66 k˚-samuṭṭhāna Vism.600; Bdhd 67, Bdhd 72; see further compounds below
      2. karma as result or consequence There are 3 kamma-nidānāni, factors producing karma and its effect: lobha, dosa, moha, as such (tīṇi nidānāni kammānaṃ samudayāya, 3 causes of the arising of karma) described AN.i.134 = AN.i.263 = AN.iii.338 = Cnd.517 so also AN.v.86; AN.v.262; Vb.208. With the cessation of these 3 the factor of karma ceases: lobha-kkhayā kamma-nidāna-saṃkhayo AN.v.262. There are 3 other nidānāni as atīte anāgate paccuppanne chanda AN.i.264 and 3 others as producing or inciting existence (called here kamma-bhava, consequential existence) are puñña, apuñña, ānejja (merit, demerit and immovability) Vb.137 = Cnd.471
      3. karma as cause-consequence: its manifestation consists in essential likeness between deed and result, cause and effect: like for like “as the cause, so the result.” Karma in this special sense is Retribution or Retaliation; a law, the working of which cannot be escaped (cp. Dhp.127, as quoted above 3 A b, and Pv.ii.7#17: sace taṃ pāpakaṃ kammaṃ karissatha karotha vā, na vo dukkhā pamutt atthi)-na hi nassati kassaci kammaṃ “nobody’s (trace, result of) action is ever lost” Snp.666; puññâpuñña-kammassa nissandena kanaka vimāne ekikā hutvā nibbatti “through the consequence of both merit and demerit” Pv-a.47; cp. Vv-a.14; yatth’ assa attabhāvo nibbattati tattha taṃ k˚ṃ vipaccati “wherever a man comes to be born, there ripens his action AN.i.134
        ■ correspondence between “light” and “dark” deeds and their respective consequence are 4 fold: kaṇha-kamma → kaṇha vipāka, sukka˚, kaṇhasukka akaṇha-asukka: DN.iii.230 = MN.i.389 = AN.ii.230 sq.; so sakena kammena nirayaṃ upapajjati Cnd.304#iii k˚ -ānubhāva -ukkhitta “thrown, set into motion, by the power of k.” Pv-a.78; sucarita-k-ânubhavâvanibbattāni vimānāni “created by the power of their result of good conduct” Vv-a.1#27; k-ânubhāvena by the working of k. Pv-a.77; k˚ -vega -ukkhittā (same) Pv-a.284; yathā kamm -ūpaga “undergoing the respective consequences (of former deeds) affected with respective karma: see compounds, and cp. yathā kammaṃ gato gone (into a new existence) according to his karma Ja.i.153 & freq.; see compounds; k-sarikkhatā “the karma-likeness, the correspondence of cause and consequence: taṃ k-s˚ṃ vibhāventaṃ suvaṇṇamayaṃ ahosi “this, manifesting the karma-correspondence, was golden Vv-a.6; so also k-sarikkhaka, in accordance with their deed, retributionary, of kamma-phalaṃ, the result of action: tassa kamma-sarikkhakaṃ kammaphalaṃ hoti “for her the fruit of action became like action,” i.e. the consequence was according to her deed. Pv-a.206 Pv-a.284; Pv-a.258; as nt.: k-s˚ṃ pan’assa udapādi “the retribution for him has come” Dhp-a.i.128; Ja.iii.203; cp. also Mil.40 sq.; Mil.65 sq.; Mil.108
      4. The working and exhaustion of karma, its building up by new karma (nava˚) and its destruction by expiration of old karma (purāṇa). The final annihilation of all result (˚kkhaya constitutes Arahantship. nava → purāṇa-kamma: as aparipakka, not ripe, and paropakka, ripe DN.i.54 = SN.iii.212; as pañca-kammuno satāni, etc. ibid.; kāyo… purāṇaṃ k˚ṃ abhisankhataṃ (“our body is an accumulation of former karma”) SN.ii.65 = Cnd.680 D; see also AN.ii.197; Pv.iv.7#1; Pv-a.1, Pv-a.45; Ne.179; and with simile of the snake stripping its slough (porāṇassa k˚ssa parikkhīṇattā… santo yathā kammaṃ gacchati) Pv-a.63
        ■ k˚-nirodha or ˚kkhaya: so… na tāva kālaṃ karoti yāva na taṃ pāpakammaṃ vyanti hoti “He does not die so long as the evil karma is unexhausted” AN.i.141≈; nava-purāṇāni k˚āni desissāmi k˚-nirodhaṃ k˚-nirodha-gāminiñ ca paṭipadaṃ “the new and the old karma I shall demonstrate to you the destruction of k. and the way which leads to the destruction of k.” SN.iv.132 ~ AN.iii.410;… navānaṃ k˚ānaṃ akaraṇā setughātaṃ; iti k-kkhayā dukkhakkhayo… (end of misery through the end of karma AN.i.220 = MN.ii.214; same Pts.i.55–Pts.i.57; cp. also AN.i.263 Cnd.411 (expl. as kamma-parāyaṇa vipāka-p˚: “gone beyond karma and its results,” i.e. having attained Nibbāna). See also the foll. compounds: k˚-âbhisankhīsa ˚āvaraṇa, ˚kkhaya, ˚nibandhana.
  • -ādhikata ruled by karma, Mil.67, Mil.68; ˚ena by the influence of k. ibid.
  • -ādhiggahita gripped by karma Mil.188, Mil.189;
  • -ānurūpa (adj.) (of vipāka) according to one’s karma Ja.iii.160; DN-a.i.37;
  • -ābhisaṅkhāra (3 B) accumulation of k. Cnd.116, Cnd.283, Cnd.506.
  • -ābhisanda in ˚ena in consequence of k. Mil.276, cp. J.P.T.S. 1886 146;
  • -āraha see I.;
  • -āyatana 1 work Vb.324, cp Mil.78; 2 action = kamma Ja.iii.542; cp. Ja.iv.451, Ja.iv.452
  • -āyūhana the heaping up of k. Vism.530; Dhs-a.267 Dhs-a.268; cp. k˚ṃ āyūhi Mil.214 and J.P.T.S. 1885, 58
  • -āvaraṇa the obstruction caused by k. AN.iii.436 Pp.13 = Vb.341 (in definition of sattā abhabbā: kammāvaraṇena samannāgatā, kiles˚, vipāk˚…), Kv.341; Mil.154, Mil.155; Vism.177 (= ānantariya-kamma)
  • -ādhikata ruled by karma, Mil.67, Mil.68; ˚ena by the influence of k. ibid.
  • -upacaya accumulation of k. Kv-a.156
  • -kathā exposition of k.; chapter in Pts.ii.98;
  • -kāma (adj. desirous of good karma Thig.275; Pv-a.174; a˚ opp. inactive, indolent AN.iv.92, Pv-a.174;
  • -kiriyā -dassana (adj.) understanding the workings of k. Ja.i.45;
  • -kiliṭṭha bad, evil k. Dhp.15 (= Dhp-a.i.129, expl. kiliṭṭha-k˚)
  • -kilesa (2) depravity of action, bad works, there are 4 enumerated at DN.iii.181 = Ja.iii.321, as the non-performance of sīla 1–4 (see sīla), equal to pāpa-kāya-k˚;
  • -kkhaya (3 B) the termination, exhaustion of the influence of k. its destruction: sabba-k˚-kkhayaṃ patto vimutto upadhi-sankhaye SN.i.134; as brought about by neutral indifferent kamma: DN.iii.230 = AN.ii.230 sq.; MN.i.93; Dhs-a.89;
  • -ja (3 B) produced by k. Ja.i.52; as one mode of the origin of disease Mil.135; Cnd.304#1; applied. to all existence Mil.271; Vism.624 (kammajaṃ āyatanadvāra-vasena pākaṭaṃ hoti); applied to rūpa Vism.451 Vism.614; appl. to pains of childbirth (˚vātā) Ja.i.52, Dhp-a.i.165 a˚ not caused by k., of ākāsa and nibbāna Mil.268, Mil.271
  • -ṭṭhāna (2)
    1. a branch of industry or occupation, profession said of diff. occupations as farmer, trader householder and mendicant MN.ii.197; AN.v.83.
    2. occasion or ground for (contemplating) kamma (see ṭhāna ii.2. c.), kamma-subject, a technical term referring to the instruments of meditation, esp. objects used by meditation to realize impermanence. These exercises (“stations of exercise” Expos. 224) are highly valued as leading to Arahantship Dhp-a.i.8 (yāva arahattaṃ kamma-ṭṭhānaṃ kathesi), Dhp-a.i.96; Pv-a.98 (catu-saccakamma-ṭṭhāna-bhāvanā meditation on the 4 truths and the objects of meditation). Freq. in phrase kammaṭṭhāne anuyutto (or anuyoga vasena) na cirass’eva arahattaṃ pāpuṇi: Ja.iii.36; Sāsv 49; see also Ja.i.7, Ja.i.97 Ja.i.182, Ja.i.303, Ja.i.414; Sdhp.493. These subjects of meditation are given as 38 at Dhs-a.168 (cp. Cpd. 202), as 32 (dvattiṃs’ ākāra-k˚) at Vism.240 sq., as 40 at Vism.110 sq. (in detail); as pañca-sandhika at Vism.277 some of them are mentioned at Ja.i.116; Dhp-a.i.221, Dhp-a.i.336 Dhp-a.iv.90
      • ˚ṃ anuyuñjati to give oneself up to meditation Sāsv 151; Pv-a.61
      • ˚ṃ uggaṇhāti to accept from his teacher a particular instrument of meditation Vism.277 sq. (see [˚assa uggaho & uggaṇhana](/define/˚assa uggaho & uggaṇhana)); Kp-a.40; Dhp-a.i.9, Dhp-a.i.262; Dhp-a.iv.106; Pv-a.42
      • ˚ṃ katheti to teach a pupil how to meditate on one of the k˚ Dhp-a.i.8, Dhp-a.i.248 Dhp-a.i.336; Pv-a.61
      • ˚ṃ adāsi Dhp-a.iv.106; ˚gaṇhāti Ja.iii.246 Vism.89;
      • ˚ācikkhana instruction in a formula of exercise Dhs-a.246;
      • ˚dāyaka the giver of a k-ṭṭh˚ object, the spiritual adviser and teacher, who must be a kalyāṇamitta (q.v.), one who has entered the Path; Vism.89 Bdhd 89, 91, cp. Vism.241
  • -ṭṭhānika a person practising kammaṭṭhāna Vism.97, Vism.187, Vism.189; Dhp-a.i.335
  • -tappana the being depressed on acct. of one’s (bad) karma Dhp-a.i.150
  • -dāyāda (3 A b and cp. ˚ssaka) the inheritor of k., i.e. inheriting the