I. Etymology

Although nir + “to blow”. (cp. BSk. nirvāṇa) is already in use in the Vedic period (see nibbāpeti), we do not find its distinctive application till later and more commonly in popular use, where is fused with vṛ; in this sense, viz. in application to the extinguishing of fire, which is the prevailing Buddhist conception of the term. Only in the older texts do we find references to a simile of the wind and the flame; but by far the most common metaphor and that which governs the whole idea of nibbāna finds expression in the putting out of fire by other means of extinction than by blowing, which latter process rather tends to incite the fire than to extinguish it. The going out of the fire may be due to covering it up, or to depriving it of further fuel, by not feeding it, or by withdrawing the cause of its production. Thus to the Pali etymologist the main reference is to the root vṛ; (to cover), and not to (to blow). This is still more clearly evident in the case of nibbuta (q.v. for further discussion). In verbal compn. nis + (see vāyati) refers only to the (non-emittance of an odour, which could never be used for a meaning of “being exhausted”; moreover, one has to bear in mind that native commentators themselves never thought of explaining nibbāna by anything like blowing (vāta), but always by nis + vana (see nibbana) For Bdhgh’s defn of nibbāna see e.g. Vism.293

The meanings of n. are:

  1. the going out of a lamp or fire (popular meaning).
  2. health, the sense of bodily well-being (probably, at first, the passing away of feverishness, restlessness).
  3. The dying out in the heart of the threefold fire of rāga, dosa & moha; lust, ill-will & stupidity (Buddhistic meaning).
  4. the sense of spiritual well-being, of security, emancipation victory and peace, salvation, bliss.

II. Import and Range of the Term

  1. Nibbāna is purely and solely an ethical state, to be reached in this birth by ethical practices, contemplation and insight It is therefore not transcendental. The first and most important way to reach N. is by means of the eightfold Path, and all expressions which deal with the realisation of emancipation from lust, hatred and illusion apply to practical habits and not to speculative thought. N is realised in one’s heart; to measure it with a speculative measure is to apply a wrong standard
    ■ A very apt and comprehensive discussion of nibbāna is found in F. Heiler, “Die buddhistische Versenkung” (München2 1922), pp. 36–42, where also the main literature on the subject is given
    ■ N. is the untranslatable expression of the Unspeakable, of that for which in the Buddha’s own saying there is no word, which cannot be grasped in terms of reasoning and cool logic, the Nameless Undefinable (cp. the simile of extinction of the flame which may be said to pass from a visible state into a state which cannot be defined. Thus the Saint (Arahant) passes into that same state, for which there is “no measure” (i.e. no dimension): “atthangatassa na pamāṇam atthi… yena naṃ vajju: taṃ tassa n’ atthi” Snp.1076. The simile in v. Snp.1074: “accī yathā vāta-vegena khitto atthaṃ paleti, na upeti sankhaṃ evaṃ munī nāmakāyā vimutto atthaṃ paleti, na upeti sankhaṃ”). Yet, it is a reality, and its characteristic features may be described, may be grasped in terms of earthly language, in terms of space (as this is the only means at our disposal to describe abstract notions of time and mentality); e.g. accutaṃ ṭhānaṃ, pāraṃ amataṃ padaṃ, amata (& nibbāna-) dhātu
    ■ It is the speculative, scholastic view and the dogmatising trend of later times, beginning with the Abhidhamma period which has more and more developed the simple, spontaneous idea into an exaggerated form either to the positive (i.e. seeing in N. a definite; state or sphere of existence) or the negative side (i.e. seeing in it a condition of utter annihilation). Yet its sentimental value to the (exuberant optimism of the) early Buddhists (Rh. Davids, Early Buddhism, p. 73) is one of peace and rest, perfect passionlessness, and thus supreme happiness As Heiler in the words of R. Otto (Das Heilige etc. 1917; quoted l. c. p. 41) describes it, “only by its concept Nirvāna is something negative, by its sentiment however, a positive item in most pronounced form
    ■ We may also quote Rh. Davids’ words: “One might fill columns with the praises, many of them among the most beautiful passages in Pāli poetry and prose lavished on this condition of mind, the state of the man made perfect according to the B. faith. Many are the pet names, the poetic epithets, bestowed upon it, each of them-for they are not synonyms-emphasising one or other phase of this many-sided conception-the harbour of refuge, the cool cave, the island amidst the floods, the place of bliss, emancipation, liberation, safety the supreme, the transcendental, the uncreated, the tranquil, the home of ease, the calm, the end of suffering, the medicine for all evil, the unshaken, the ambrosia the immaterial, the imperishable, the abiding, the further shore, the unending, the bliss of effort, the supreme joy, the ineffable, the detachment, the holy city, and many others. Perhaps the most frequent in the B. texts is Arahantship, ʻthe state of him who is worthy’; and the one exclusively used in Europe is Nirvana, the ʻdying out,’ that is, the dying out in the heart of the fell fire of the three cardinal sins-sensuality, ill-will, and stupidity (SN.iv.251, SN.iv.261), (Early Buddhism pp. 72, 73.) And Heiler says (p. 42 l. c.): “Nirvāna is, although it might sound a paradox in spite of all conceptional negativity nothing but ʻeternal salvation,’ after which the heart of the religious yearns on the whole earth.”
    ■ The current simile is that of fire, the consuming fire of passion (rāg-aggi), of craving for rebirth, which has to be extinguished, if a man is to attain a condition of indifference towards everything worldly, and which in the end, in its own good time, may lead to freedom from rebirth altogether, to certain and final extinction (parinibbāna)
    ■ Fire may be put out by water, or may go out of itself from lack of fuel. The ethical state called Nibbāna can only rise from within. It is therefore in the older texts compared to the fire going out, rather than to the fire being put out. The latter point of view, though the word nibbāna is not used, occurs in one or two passages in later books. See Ja.i.212; Mil.346, Mil.410; Snp-a.28; Sdhp.584. For the older view see MN.i.487 (aggi anāhāro nibbuto, a fire gone out through lack of fuel); Snp.1094 (akiñcanaṃ anādānaṃ etaṃ dīpaṃ anāparaṃ Nibbānaṃ iti); SN.i.236 (attadaṇḍesu nibbuto sādānesu anādāno); SN.ii.85 (aggikkhandho purimassa upādānassa pariyādānā aññassa ca anupāhārā anāhāro nibbāyeyya, as a fire would go out, bereft of food because the former supply being finished no additional supply is forthcoming); sa-upādāno devānaṃ indo na parinibbāyati, the king of the gods does not escape rebirth so long as he has within him any grasping SN.iv.102; pāragū sabbadhammānaṃ anupādāya nibbuto AN.i.162; pāragato jhāyī anup˚ nibbuto, a philosopher freed, without any cause, source, of rebirth AN.iv.290 (etc., see nibbuta). dāvaggi-nibbānaṃ the going out of the jungle fire Ja.i.212; aggi nibbāyeyya, should the fire go out MN.i.487; aggikkhandho nibbuto hoti the great fire has died out Mil.304; nibbuto ginī my fire is out Snp.19. The result of quenching the fire (going out) is coolness (sīta); and one who has attained the state of coolness is sītibhūta. sītibhūto ’smi nibbuto Vin.i.8; Pv.i.8#7; sītibhūto nirūpadhi, cooled, with no more fuel (to produce heat) Vin.ii.156; AN.i.138; nicchāto nibbuto sītibhūto (cp. nicchāta) AN.ii.208; AN.v.65 anupādānā dīpacci viya nibbutā gone out like the flame of a lamp without supply of fuel Thag-a.154 (Tha-ap.153)
    nibbanti dhīrā yath’ āyaṃ padīpo the Wise go out like the flame of this lamp Snp.235. This refers to the pulling out of the wick or to lack of oil, not to a blowing out; cp. vaṭṭiṃ paṭicca telapadīpo jāleyya SN.ii.86; Thig.116 (padīpass’ eva nibbānaṃ vimokkho ahu cetaso). The pulling out of the wick is expressed by vaṭṭiṃ okassayāmi (= dīpavaṭṭiṃ ākaḍḍhemi Thag-a.117) cp. on this passage Pischel, Leben & Lehre des Buddha; 71; Mrs. Rh. Davids, Buddhism 176; Neumann Lieder 298). pajjotass’ eva nibbānaṃ like the going out of a lamp SN.i.159≈.
  2. Since rebirth is the result of wrong desire (kāma kilesa, āsava, rāga etc.), the dying out of that desire leads to freedom & salvation from rebirth and its cause or substratum. Here references should be given to 1 the fuel in ethical sense (cp. A 1: aggi); 2 the aims to be accomplished (for instance, coolness = peace) 3 the seat of its realisation (the heart); 4 the means of achievement (the Path); 5 the obstacles to be removed.
    1. Fuel = cause of rebirth & suffering; āsāva (intoxications). khīṇāsavā jutimanto to loke parinibbutā the wise who are rid of all intoxications are in this world the thoroughly free SN.v.29; sāvakā āsavānaṃ khayā viharanti AN.iv.83; kodhaṃ pahatvāna parinibbiṃsu anāsavā (are completely cooled) AN.iv.98 āsavakhīṇo danto parinibbuto Snp.370; saggaṃ sugatino yanti parinibbanti anāsavā those of happy fate go to heaven, but those not intoxicated die out Dhp.126 nibbānaṃ adhimuttānaṃ atthaṅgacchanti āsavā Dhp.226 āsavānaṃ khayā bhikkhu nicchāto parinibbuto Iti.49 vimutti-kusuma-sañchanno parinibbissati anāsavo Thag.100
      kāmā (cravings) nikkāmo nibbano Nāgo Snp.1131
      kilesa-(nibbāna) vice (only in certain commentaries). kilesa-nibbānass’ āpi anupādā parinibbānass’ āpi santike Dhp-a.i.286; upādānaṃ abhāvena anupādiyitvā kilesa-nibbānena nibbutā Dhp-a.iv.194
      nibbidā (disenchantment). Nibbānaṃ ekanta-nibbidāya virāgāya etc. saṃvattati SN.ii.223; nibbijjha sabbaso kāme sikkhe nibbānaṃ attano Snp.940
      rāga virāgo nirodho nibbānaṃ SN.i.136≈; desento virajaṃ dhammaṃ nibbānaṃ akutobhayan SN.i.192; yo rāgakkhayo (dosa˚ .… moha˚…): idaṃ vuccati nibbānaṃ SN.iv.251, same of Amata SN.v.8; chandarāga-vinodanaṃ nibbānapadaṃ accutaṃ Snp.1086; kusalo ca jahati pāpakaṃ rāgadosamoha-kkhayā parinibbuto Ud.85; ye ‘dha pajahanti kāmarāgaṃ bhavarāgânusayañ ca pahāya parinibbānagatā Vv.53#24
      vana sabba-saṃyojan’ atītaṃ vanā nibbānaṃ āgataṃ AN.iii.346; nikkhantaṃ vānato ti nibbānaṃ Kp-a.151; taṇhā-sankhāta-vānâbhāvato nibbānaṃ Snp-a.253.

    2. Aims: khema (tranquillity). ātāpī bhikkhu nibbānāya bhabbo anuttarassa yogakkhemassa adhigamāya Iti.27; ajaraṃ amaraṃ khemaṃ pariyessāmi nibbutiṃ Ja.i.3; acala (immovable, not to be disturbed). patto acalaṭṭhānaṃ Vv.51#4; accuta (stable) patthayaṃ accutaṃ padaṃ SN.iii.143; chandarāga-vinodanaṃ nibbānapadaṃ accutaṃ Snp.1086. nekkhamma (renunciation, dispassionateness). vanā nibbānaṃ āgataṃ kāmehi nekkhammarataṃ AN.iii.346
      pāragū (victor). pāragū sabbadhammānaṃ anupādāya nibbuto AN.i.162 (cp AN.iv.290 with tiṇṇo pāragato)
      santipada (calm, composure). santī ti nibbutiṃ ñatvā Snp.933; santimaggaṃ eva brūhaya nibbānaṃ sugatena desitaṃ Dhp.285 s. = acala Vv-a.219
      samatha (allayment, quietude) sabbasankhārasamatho nibbānaṃ SN.i.136≈
      sotthi (welfare). saccena suvatthi hotu nibbānaṃ Snp.235.

    3. The Heart:

      1. attā (heart, self). abhinibbut-atto Snp.456; thiṭatto frequent, e.g. parinibbuto ṭh˚; Snp.359 danto parinib˚ ṭh˚; Snp.370
      2. citta (heart). apariḍayhamāna-citto Snp-a.347 (for abhinibbutatto Snp.343)-
      3. hadaya (heart) nibbānaṃ hadayasmiṃ opiya SN.i.199; mātuhadayaṃ nibbāyate Ja.i.61; nibbāpehi me hadaya-pariḷāhaṃ (quench the fever of my heart Mil.318
      4. mano (mind). mano nibbāyi tāvade Ja.i.27; disvā mano me pasīdi Vv.50#14.
    4. The Path: dhīra. lokapariyāyaṃ aññāya nibbutā dhīrā tiṇṇā etc. SN.i.24; nibbanti dhīrā… Snp.235 sabbābhibhū dhīro sabbagantha-ppamocano Iti.122 Recognition of anicca (transitoriness, see nicca). aniccasaññī… bhikkhu pāpuṇāti diṭṭh’ eva dhamme nibbānaṃ AN.iv.353
      paññā. nibbānaṃ ev’ ajjhagamuṃ sapaññā SN.i.22; n’ abhirato paññā SN.i.38. paṇḍita & nipaka. anupubbena n˚ṃ adhigacchanti paṇḍitā AN.i.162; nipakā asesaṃ parinibbanti Iti.93. vijjā. bhikkhu paṇihitena cittena avijjaṃ bhecchati vijjaṃ uppādessati n˚ṃ sacchikarissati the bhikkhu with devout heart will destroy ignorance, gain right cognition & realise Nibbāna AN.i.8; idh’ aññāya parinibbāti anāsavo AN.iii.41; sabb’ āsave pariññāya parinibbanti anāsavā Vb.426.

    5. The Obstacles: gantha (fetter). nibbānaṃ adhigantabbaṃ sabba-g˚-pamocanaṃ SN.i.210; Iti.104 similarly Iti.122 (see above). gabbhaseyyā (rebirth) na te punam upenti gabbhaseyyaṃ, parinibbānagatā hi sītibhūtā Vv.53#24- nīvaraṇa (obstacles). pañca n˚ anibbāna-saṃvattanikā SN.v.97
      punabbhava (rebirth) nibbāpehi mahārāgaṃ mā ḍayhittho punappunaṃ SN.i.188 vibhavañ ca bhavañ ca vippahāya vusitavā khīṇapunabbhavo sa bhikkhu Snp.514; bhava-nirodha nibbānaṃ SN.ii.117
      saṅkhārā (elements of life). sabbasaṅkhāra-samatho nibbānaṃ SN.i.136; N. = sabbasankhārā khayissanti AN.iii.443
      saṃyojanāni (fetters). sabbas-âtītaṃ vanā Nibbānaṃ āgataṃ AN.iii.346; s. pahāya n˚ṃ sacchikarissati AN.iii.423; saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā antarā-parinibbāyī hoti SN.v.69.

III. Its ethical importance and general characterisation.

  1. Assurance of N. (nibbānass’ eva santike, near N., sure of N.): SN.i.33 (yassa etādisaṃ yānaṃ… sa etena yānena n. e. s.: with the chariot of the dhamma sure of reaching N.); SN.iv.75; AN.ii.39 (abhabbo parihānāya n. e. s. impossible to fail in the assurance of final release, of one “catuhi dhammehi samannāgato, viz. sīla, indriyaguttadvāratā, bhojanamattaññutā jāgariyā”); AN.iii.331 (id. with appamādagaru: ever active & keen); AN.ii.40 = Iti.40 (id. with appamāda-rato); Snp.822
  2. Steps and Means to N.: nibbāna-sacchikiriyā, attainment of N., is maṅgalaṃ uttamaṃ & to be achieved by means of; tapo, brahmacariyā and ariyasaccāna-dassanaṃ Snp.267
    brahmacariya (a saintly life) is n- parāyanā (leading to N. SN.iii.189, cp. SN.v.218; also called n- ogadhā (with similar states of mind, as nibbidā, virāgo, vimutti) ibid. AN.ii.26 = Iti.28, cp. Iti.29 (nibbān’-ogadha-gāminaṃ b˚ṃ). The stages of sanctification are also discussed under the formula “nibbidā virāgo vimutti… vimuttasmiṃ vimuttaṃ iti ñāṇaṃ hoti: khīṇā jāti etc. (i.e. no more possibility of birth) SN.ii.124 = SN.iv.86. dhamma: Buddha’s teaching as the way to N. “dhammavaraṃ adesayi n- gāmiṃ paramaṃ hitāya Snp.233; ahaṃ sāvakānaṃ dhammaṃ desemi sattānaṃ visuddhiyā… n˚assa sacchikiriyāya AN.v.194, cp.141; pubbe dh
    ■ ṭhiti-ñāṇaṃ pacchā nibbāne ñāṇan ti SN.ii.124
    magga: Those practices of a moral & good life embraced in the 8 fold Noble Path (ariyamagga) Sace atthi akammena koci kvaci na jīyati; nibbānassa hi so maggo SN.i.217; ekāyano ayaṃ maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā… N˚assa sacchikiriyāya DN.ii.290; SN.v.167, SN.v.185; bhāvayitvā sucimaggaṃ n˚-ogadha-gāminaṃ… Vb.426; ādimhi sīlaṃ dasseyya, majjhe maggaṃ vibhāvaye, pariyosānamhi nibbānaṃ… DN-a.i.176
    N- gamanaṃ maggaṃ: tattha me nirato mano “my heart rejoices in the path to Nibbāna SN.i.186; N- gāminī paṭipadā AN.iv.83 (the path to salvation). Cp. §§ 4 & 7
  3. The Search for N. or the goal of earnest endeavour. ārogya-paramā lābhā nibbānaṃ paramaṃ sukhaṃ, aṭṭhangiko ca maggānaṃ khemaṃ amata-gāminaṃ “N. is a higher bliss than acquisition of perfect health, the eightfold Path (alone of all leads to perfect peace, to ambrosia” MN.i.508, cp Dhp.204 (“the fullest gain is for health etc.; N. is the highest happiness” Dhp-a.iii.267). Similarly: khantī paramaṃ tapo titikkhā, n˚ṃ paramaṃ vadanti buddhā DN.ii.49 = Dhp.184; n˚ṃ paramaṃ sukhaṃ: Dhp.204 = Snp.257 = Ja.iii.195; id.: Dhp.203; jhānaṃ upasampajja… okkamanāya n.˚assa AN.iv.111 sq.; cp. AN.iv.230 sq.; kaṭuviyakato bhikkhu… ārakā hoti N˚ā AN.i.281; n˚ṃ ajjhagamuṃ sapaññā SN.i.22; devalokañ ca te yanti… anupubbena n˚ṃ adhigacchanti paṇḍitā AN.i.162; n˚ṃ abhikaṅkhati SN.i.198; abhipassati AN.i.147; tiṇṇakathankatho visallo n- ābhirato Snp.86; bhikkhu bhabbo anuttaraṃ sītibhāvaṃ sacchikātuṃ… paṇītâdhimutto hoti ṇ-ābhirato ca AN.iii.435; n- ābhirato… sabbadukkhā pamuccati SN.i.38; n- ogadhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ vussati n- parāyaṇaṃ n- pariyosānaṃ SN.iii.189 = SN.v.218 n˚ṃ gavesanto carāmi (Bodhisat, Ja.i.61). All means of conduct & all ideals of reason & intellect lead to one end only: Nibbāna. This is frequently expressed by var similes in the phrase; n- ninna, ˚poṇa, ˚pabbhāra, e.g. SN.v.75 = SN.v.134 = SN.v.137 = SN.v.190; SN.v.244; AN.v.75, AN.v.134, AN.v.190, AN.v.244 AN.v.291; Vv.84#42. Saddahāno arahataṃ dhammaṃ n. pattiyā sussūsā labhate paññaṃ appamatto SN.i.214; Snp.186, cp. SN.i.48; Gotamo n- paṭisaṃyuttāya dhammiyā kathāya bhikkhū sandasseti SN.i.214 = SN.i.192 = SN.i.210; Ud.80 n˚ṃ pariyesati AN.ii.247; n- pariyosānā sabbe dhammā AN.v.107; n- poṇaṃ me mānasaṃ bhavissati, saṃyojanā pahāṇaṃ gacchanti AN.iii.443; odhunitvā malaṃ sabbaṃ patvā n- sampadaṃ muccati sabba-dukkhehi: sā hoti sabbasampadā AN.iv.239; nibbijjha sabbaso kāme sikkhe n˚ṃ attano Snp.940, Snp.1061
  4. Some Epithets of Nibbāna: akutobhayaṃ AN.ii.24 = Iti.122 accutaṃ padaṃ (careyya āditta-sīso va patthayaṃ a. p. SN.iii.143; Snp.1086; pattā te acalaṭṭhānaṃ yattha gantvā na socare Vv.51#4; amataṃ AN.ii.247; MN.iii.224 (Bhagavā atthassa ninnetā a ˚assa dātā); Mil.319; Vv.64#27 (apāpuranto a ˚assa dvāraṃ); Vv-a.85 (a-rasa) Vv.50#20 (amatogadha magga = nibb˚-gāminī paṭipadā) amosadhammaṃ Snp.758; khemaṃ appaṭibhayaṃ SN.iv.175; SN.i.189 = Snp.454; Thig.350 (˚ṭṭhāne vimuttā te patta te acalaṃ sukhaṃ); MN.i.508 (+ amatagāminaṃ) AN.ii.247 (yogakkhemaṃ anuttaraṃ); same at AN.iii.294; Iti.27; Dhp.23
    taṇhakkhaya Vv.73#5; ṭhānaṃ dud- dasaṃ SN.i.136 (= sabba-sankhāra -samatho); dhuvaṃ (q.v.); niccaṃ Kv.121; nekkhammaṃ AN.i.147 (˚ṃ daṭṭhu khemato… nibbānaṃ abhipassanto); Vv.84#42. sabba-gantha-pamocanaṃ (deliverance from all ties) SN.i.210; SN.ii.278 (sabbadukkha˚); Iti.222 = AN.ii.24 yathābhūtaṃ vacanaṃ SN.iv.195; yathāsukhaṃ (the Auspicious) AN.iv.415 sq.; (chanda-) rāga vinodanaṃ Snp.1086; rāgakkhayo (dosa˚, moha˚) SN.v.8; rāgavinayo (dosa˚, moha˚) ibid., santi (calm, peace) Vv.50#21 = Snp.204 (chandarāga-viratto bhikkhu paññāṇavā ajjhagā amataṃ santiṃ nibbānapadaṃ accutaṃ); Vv-a.219 (= acala); santimaggaṃ eva brūhaya n˚ṃ Sugatena desitaṃ Dhp.285 = Ne.36; sandiṭṭhikaṃ akālikaṃ etc. AN.i.158; samo bhūmibhāgo ramaṇīyo SN.iii.109; sassataṃ Kv.34; suvatthi Snp.235
  5. N. is realisable in this world, i.e. in this life if it is mature (diṭṭhe va dhamme): SN.ii.18 = SN.ii.115 = SN.iii.163 = SN.iv.141 (diṭṭha-dh-n-patta); MN.ii.228; AN.iv.353 = AN.iv.358, cp. AN.iv.454
  6. Definitions with regard to the destruction of the causes or substrata of life (cp. above I.): taṇhāya vippahānena n˚ṃ iti vuccati SN.i.39 = Snp.1109; as sabba- saṅkhārasamatho (calming down of all vital elements) Vin.i.5; SN.i.136; AN.ii.118 = AN.iii.164; AN.iv.423; AN.v.8, AN.v.110, AN.v.320, AN.v.354 akiñcanaṃ anādānaṃ etaṃ dīpaṃ anāparaṃ n˚ṃ iti nam brūmi jarāmaccu-parikkhayaṃ Snp.1094; bhavanirodho n˚ṃ ti SN.ii.117; AN.v.9; rāga-kkhayo (dosa˚, moha˚ SN.iv.251 = SN.iv.261; virāgo nirodho n˚ṃ in typical & very freq. exposition at Cnd = SN.i.136≈. See also vana cp. the foll.: taṇhā-sankhāta-vānâbhāvato n˚ṃ Snp-a.253; nikkhantaṃ vānato ti n˚ṃ Kp-a.151; kilesa-n ass’ âpi anupādā parinibbānass’ âpi santike yeva Dhp-a.i.286 (on Dhp.32)
  7. N. as perfect wisdom and what is conducive to such a state (saṃvattati). The foll phrase is one of the oldest stereotype phrases in the Canon & very freq.; it is used of all the highest means & attainments of conduct & meditation & may be said to mark the goal of perfect understanding & a perfect philosophy of life. It is given in 2 variations, viz. in a simple form as; “upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattati,” with ref. to majjhimā paṭipadā at Vin.i.10 = SN.iv.331 = SN.v.421; of satta bojjhangā at SN.v.80; and in a fuller form as “ekanta-nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya etc. as above” at DN.i.189 (negative); DN.ii.251 (of brahmacariyaṃ), DN.ii.285, DN.iii.130 (sukhallikânuyogā, neg.), DN.iii.136 (avyākataṃ, neg.) SN.ii.223 (brahmacariya); SN.v.82 (satta bojjhangā), SN.v.179 (satipaṭṭhānā), SN.v.255 (iddhipādā), SN.v.361 (ariyamagga), SN.v.438; AN.iii.83, AN.iii.326 sq.; etc
    ■ Cp. n- saṃvattanika SN.v.97 (upekhāsambojjhanga); Cnd.281 (neg. of tamo).
  8. N. as the opposite of rāga (passion, lust). Freq. is the combination of virāga nirodha nibbāna, almost used as three synonyms, thus at SN.ii.18; Vin.iii.20 = Vin.iii.111; AN.ii.118 = AN.iii.164 = AN.iv.423 = AN.v.8 = Nd ii.under Nibbāna AN.ii.34 = Iti.88 (dhammānaṃ aggaṃ akkhāyati, madanimmadano pipāsa-vinayo ālaya-samugghāto vaṭṭûpacchedo taṇhakkhayo virāgo nirodha nibbānaṃ), cp Vin.iii.20≈. Similarly SN.i.192 (Sugataṃ payirupāsati desentaṃ virajaṃ dhammaṃ nibbānaṃ akutobhayaṃ).
  9. Various Characterisations & Similes; (cp. above II A 4 & 5). sukkâbhijātiko samāno akaṇhaṃ asukkaṃ n˚ṃ abhijayati DN.iii.251; AN.iii.384 sq.; aniccā sabbe sankhārā dukkhā ‘nattā ca sankhātā: nibbānañ c’ eva paññatti anattā iti nicchayā Vin.v.86. On anicca anattā in rel. to N. see also SN.iv.133 sq.; AN.iv.353 dukkhato & sukhato n˚ṃ samanupassati AN.iii.442 On comparison with a lamp see e.g. SN.i.159 = DN.ii.157 Thag.906 (pajjotass’ eva nibbānaṃ vimokkho cetaso ahū), AN.iv.3 (pajjotass’ eva n. vimokkho hoti cetaso) Snp.235 (.… te khīṇabījā avirūḷhichandā nibbanti dhīrā yathâyaṃ padīpo).
  • -abhirata fond of N. (cp. III. 3) SN.i.38; AN.iii.435; Snp.86 (visalla +);
  • -ogadha merging into N. (of brahmacariya) SN.iii.189; SN.v.218; AN.ii.26 = Iti.28; Vb.426 cp. amatogadha AN.v.107;
  • -gamana (magga; cp. III. 2 leading to N. DN.ii.223; SN.i.186, SN.i.217; AN.iv.83; (dhamma: SN.v.11; Snp.233;
  • -dhātu the sphere or realm of N. always in phrase anupādisesāsaya n- dhātuyā parinibbāyate Vin.ii.239; DN.iii.135; Iti.38, Iti.121; Pts.i.101; cp. rāgavinayo n- dhātuyā adhivacanaṃ SN.v.8. See parinibbāyin;
  • -ninna (+ ˚poṇa, ˚pabbhāra; cp. III. 3) converging into N. AN.iii.443; Vv.84#42 & passim;
  • -paṭisaññuta (dhammikathā; cp. III. 2) relating or referring to N. SN.i.114 = SN.i.192 = SN.i.210; Ud.80;
  • -patta having attained N. (diṭṭha-dhamma˚, see above III. 5) SN.ii.18 = SN.ii.114 SN.iii.163;
  • -patti attainment of N. SN.i.48, SN.i.214 = Snp.186
  • -pada = Nibbāna (see pada 3) Snp.204.
  • -pariyosāna ending in N. having its final goal in N. SN.iii.189; SN.v.218; AN.v.107;
  • -saṃvattanika conducive to N.; contributing toward the attainment of N. SN.v.97; Cnd.281 (a˚); cp above III. 7;
  • -sacchikiriyā realisation of N. (identical with ñāṇa and constituting the highest ideal; cp. above III. 2) Snp.267. Cp. also DN.ii.290; SN.v.167; AN.iii.423 AN.v.141;
  • -saññā perception of N. AN.iii.443;
  • -sampatti successful attainment of N. Kp.viii.13;
  • -sampadā the blessing of the attainment of N. AN.iv.239.