to desire.

  1. Objective: pleasantness, pleasure-giving, an object of sensual enjoyment.
  2. Subjective: (a) enjoyment, pleasure on occasion of sense, (b) sense-desire.

Buddhist commentators express 1 and 2 by kāmiyatī ti kāmo, and kametī ti kāmo Cpd. 81, n.2. Kāma as sense-desire and enjoyment plus objects of the same is a collective name for all but the very higher or refined conditions of life. The kāma-bhava or-loka (worlds of sensedesire) includes 4 of the 5 modes (gatis) of existence and part of the fifth or deva-loka. See Bhava. The term is not found analyzed till the later books of the Canon are consulted, thus, Mnd.1 distinguishes:

  1. vatthukāmā: desires relating to a base, i.e. physical organ or external object, and
  2. kilesakāmā: desire considered subjectively.

So also Cnd.202, quoted Dhp-a.ii.162; Dhp-a.iii.240; and very often as ubho kāmā. A more logical definition is given by Dhammapāla on Vv.1#1 (Vv-a.11). He classifies kāma as concerned with:

  1. manāpiyā rūpādi-visayā: pleasant objects
  2. chandarāga: impulsive desire
  3. sabbasmiṃ lobha: greed for anything
  4. gāmadhamma: sexual lust
  5. hitacchanda: effort to do good
  6. serībhāva : self-determination.

In all enumerations of obstacles to perfection, or of general divisions and definitions of mental conditions kāma occupies the leading position. It is the first of the five obstacles (nīvaraṇāni), the three esanās (longings), the four upādānas (attachments), the four oghas (floods of worldly turbulence), the four āsavas (intoxicants of mind), the three taṇhās, the four yogas; and k stands first on the list of the six factors of existence kāmā, vedanā, saññā, āsavā, kamma, dukkha, which are discussed at AN.iii.410 sq. as regards their origin difference, consequences, destruction and remedy. Kāma is most frequently connected with rāga (passion) with chanda (impulse) and gedha (greed), all expressing the active, clinging, and impulsive character of desire. The foll. is the list of synonyms given at various places for kāma-cchanda:

  1. chanda, impulse;
  2. rāga excitement;
  3. nandī, enjoyment;
  4. taṇhā, thirst
  5. sineha, love;
  6. pipāsā, thirst;
  7. pariḷāha, consuming passion;
  8. gedha, greed;
  9. mucchā, swoon or confused state of mind;
  10. ajjhosāna, hanging on, or attachment.

Nd1. At Cnd.200; Dhs.1097 (omitting No. 8), cp. Dhs-a.370; similarly at Vism.569 (omitting Nos. 6 and 8), cp. Dhs.1214; Vb.375. This set of 10 characteristics is followed by kām-ogha, kāma-yoga kām-upādāna at Cnd.200, cp. Vism.141 (kām-ogha ˚āsava, ˚upādāna). Similarly at DN.iii.238: kāme avigata-rāga, ˚chanda, ˚pema, ˚pipāsa, ˚pariḷāha ˚taṇha. See also kāma-chanda below under compounds. In connection with synonyms it may be noticed that most of the verbs used in a kāma-context are verbs the primary meaning of which is “adhering to” or “grasping,” hence, attachment; viz. esanā (iṣ to Lat ira) upādāna (upa + ā + taking up), taṇhā (tṛṣ, Lat torreo = thirst) pipāsā (the wish to drink), sineha (snih, Lat. nix = melting), etc.

On the other hand, the reaction of the passions on the subject is expressed by khajjati “to be eaten up” pariḍayhati “to be burnt, etc. The foll. passage also illustrates the various synonymic expressions: kāme paribhuñjati, kāmamajjhe vasati, kāma-pariḷāhena pariḍayhati, kāmavitakkehi khajjati, kāma-pariyesanāyā ussukko, AN.i.68 cp. MN.i.463; MN.iii.129. Under this aspect kāma is essentially an evil, but to the popular view it is one of the indispensable attributes of bliss and happiness to be enjoyed as a reward of virtue in this world (mānussakāmā) as well as in the next (dibbā kāmā). See kāmāvacara about the various stages of next-world happiness. Numerous examples are to be found in Pv and Vv where a standing epithet of the Blest is sabbakāmasamiddha “fully equipped with all objects of pleasure, e.g. Pv.i.10#5; Pv-a.46. The other-world pleasures are greater than the earthly ones: SN.v.409; but to the Wise even these are unsatisfactory, since they still are signs of, and lead to, rebirth (kāmûpapatti, It (4): api dibbesu kāmesu ratiṃ so nâdhigacchati Dhp.187; rāgaṃ vinayetha mānusesu dibbesu kāmesu cāpi bhikkhu Snp.361 see also Iti.94

Kāma as sensual pleasure finds its most marked application in the sphere of the sexual kāmesu micchācārin, transgressing in lusts, sinning in the lusts of the flesh, or violating the third rule of conduct equivalent to abrahmacariyā, inchastity (see sīla Pp.38, Pp.39; Iti.63, etc. itthi-kāmehi paricāreti “he enjoys himself with the charms of woman” SN.iv.343 Kāmesu brahmacariyavā practising chastity Snp.1041 Kāmatthā for sexual amusement AN.iii.229.

Redemption from kāma is to be effected by self-control (saṃyama) and meditation (jhāna), by knowledge right effort and renunciation. “To give up passion” as a practice of him who wishes to enter on the Path is expressed by:

  • kāmānaṃ pahānaṃ, kāmasaññānaṃ pariññā, kāma-pipāsānaṃ-paṭivinayo, kāmavitakkānaṃ samugghāto kāma-pariḷāhānaṃ vūpasamo Vin.iii.111
  • kāmesu (ca) appaṭibaddhacitto “uddhaṃsoto” ti vuccati: he whose mind is not in the bonds of desire is called “one who is above the stream” Dhp.218 cp. Thig.12
  • tasmā jantu sadā sato kāmāni parivajjaye Snp.771
  • yo kāme parivajjeti Snp.768 = Ne.69-nikkhamma gharā panujja kāme Snp.359
  • ye ca kāme pariññāya caranti akutobhayā te ve pāragatā loke ye pattā āsavakkhayaṃ AN.iii.69
  • Kāmānaṃ pariññaṃ paññāpeti Gotamo MN.i.84; cp. AN.v.64 kāme pajahati: SN.i.12 = SN.i.31; Snp.704; kāmānaṃ vippahāna SN.i.47
  • ye kāme hitvā agihā caranti Snp.464-kāmā nirujjhanti (through jhāna) AN.iv.410; kāme panudati Dhp.383 = SN.i.15 (context broken), cp. kāmasukhaṃ analaṃkaritvā Snp.59
  • kāmesu anapekkhin Snp.166 = SN.i.16 (abbrev.); SN.ii.281; Snp.857
  • cp rāgaṃ vinayetha… Snp.361.
  • vivicc’ eva kāmehi aloof from sensuous joys is the prescription for all Jhāna-exercise.

Applications of these expressions:

  • kāmesu palāḷita AN.iii.5;
  • kāmesu mucchita SN.i.74;
  • kāmālaye asatta SN.i.33;
  • kāmesu kathaṃ nameyya SN.i.117;
  • kāmesu anikīḷitāvin SN.i.9 (cp. kela);
  • kittassa munino carato kāmesu anapekhino oghatiṇṇassa pihayanti kāmesu gathitā pajā Snp.823 (gadhitā Nd1)
  • kāmesu asaññata Snp.243
  • yo na lippati kāmesu tam ahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ Dhp.401
  • Muni santivādo agiddho kāme ca loke ca anûpalitto Snp.845;
  • kāmesu giddha DN.iii.107; Snp.774;
  • kāmesu gedhaṃ āpajjati SN.i.73
  • na so rajjati kāmesu Snp.161
  • kāmānaṃ vasam upāgamum Snp.315 (= kāmānaṃ āsattataṃ pāpuniṃsu Snp-a.325);
  • kāme parivajjeti Snp.768,
  • kāme anugijjhati Snp.769.

Character of Kāmā

The pleasures of the senses are evanescent, transient (sabbe kāmā aniccā, etc. AN.ii.177) and of no real taste (appāsādā); they do not give permanent satisfaction; the happiness which they yield is only a deception, or a dream, from which the dreamer awakens with sorrow and regret. Therefore the Buddha says “Even though the pleasure is great, the regret is greater: ādīnavo ettha bhīyyo” (see k-sukha). Thus kāmā as kālikā (needing time) SN.i.9, SN.i.117; aniccā (transitory) SN.i.22; kāmā citrā madhurā “pleasures are manifold and sweet” (i.e. tasty) Snp.50; but also appassādā bahudukkhā bahupāyāsā: quot. MN.i.91 see Cnd.71. Another passage with var. descriptions and comparisons of kāma, beginning with app’ assādā dukkhā kāmā is found at Ja.iv.118. -atittaṃ yeva kāmesu antako kurute vasaṃ Dhp.48
na kahāpaṇavassena titti kāmesu vijjati appasādā dukkhā kāmā iti viññāya paṇḍito “not for showers of coins is satisfaction to be found in pleasures-of no taste and full of misery are pleasures: thus say the wise and they understand” Dhp.186; cp. MN.i.130; Vin.ii.25 (cp. Divy.224)
Kāmato jāyatī soko kāmato jāyatī bhayaṃ kāmato vippamuttassa n’atthi soko kuto bhayan ti “of pleasure is born sorrow, of pleasure is born fear” Dhp.215. Kāmānam adhivacanāni, attributes of kāma are bhaya, dukkha, roga, gaṇḍa, salla, sanga, panka, gabbha AN.iv.289; Cnd.p.62 on Snp.51; same, except salla gabbha: AN.iii.310. The misery of such pleasures is painted in vivid colours in the Buddha’s discourse on pains of pleasures MN.i.85 and parallel passages (see e.g. Cnd.199), how kāma is the cause of egoism, avarice quarrels between kings, nations, families, how it leads to warfare, murder, lasciviousness, torture and madness Kāmānaṃ ādīnavo (the danger of passions) MN.i.85 sq = Cnd.199, quot. Snp-a.114 (on Snp.61); as one of the five anupubbikathās: K˚ ādīnavaṃ okāraṃ saṃkilesaṃ AN.iv.186, AN.iv.209, AN.iv.439
■ they are the leaders in the army of Māra: kāmā te paṭhamā senā Snp.436
■ yo evamvādī… n’atthi kāmesu doso ti so kāmesu pātavyataṃ āpajjati AN.i.266 = MN.i.305 sq.


In the foll. passage (following on appassādā bahudukkhā, etc.) the pleasures of the senses are likened to:

  1. aṭṭhi-kankhala, a chain of bones;
  2. maṃsapesi, a piece of (decaying) flesh
  3. tiṇ’ukkā, a torch of grass;
  4. angāra-kāsu, a pit of glowing cinders
  5. supina, a dream;
  6. yācita, beggings
  7. rukkha-phala, the fruit of a tree
  8. asisūna, a slaughter-house
  9. satti-sūla, a sharp stake
  10. sappa-sira, a snake’s head, i.e. the bite of a snake

At Vin.ii.25; MN.i.130; AN.iii.97 (where aṭṭhisankhala); Cnd.71 (leaving out No. 10). Out of this list are taken single quotations of No. 4 at DN.iii.283; AN.iv.224 = AN.v.175; No. 5 at Dhp-a.iii.240; No. 8 at MN.i.144; No. 9 at SN.i.128 = Thig.58 & Thig.141 (with khandhānaṃ for khandhāsaṃ); No. 10 as āsīvisa (poisonous fangs of a snake) yesu mucchitā bālā Thig.451, and several at many other places of the Canon.

Cases used adverbially

kāmaṃ acc. as adv.

  1. yathā kāmaṃ according to inclination, at will, as much as one chooses SN.i.227; Ja.i.203; Pv-a.63, Pv-a.113, Pv-a.176; yena kāmaṃ wherever he likes, just as he pleases AN.iv.194; Vv.i.1#1 (= icchānurūpaṃ Vv-a.11)
  2. willingly gladly, let it be that, usually with imper. SN.i.222; Ja.i.233; Ja.iii.147; Ja.iv.273; Vv-a.95; kāmaṃ taco nahāru ca aṭṭhi ca avasissatu (avasussatu in J) sarīre upasussatu maṃsa-lohitaṃ “willingly shall skin, sinews and bone remain, whilst flesh and blood shall wither in the body” MN.i.481; AN.i.50; SN.ii.28; Ja.i.71, Ja.i.110; -kāmasā (instr.) in same sense Ja.iv.320; Ja.vi.181; -kāmena (instr. do. Ja.v.222, Ja.v.226; -kāmā for the love of, longing after (often with hi) Ja.iii.466; Ja.iv.285, Ja.iv.365; Ja.v.294 Ja.vi.563, Ja.vi.589; cp. Mhvs.iii.18, Mhvs.iii.467. -akāmā unwillingly DN.i.94; Ja.vi.506; involuntarily Ja.v.237.

-kāma (adj.) desiring, striving after, fond of, pursuing in kāma-kāma pleasure-loving Snp.239 (kāme kāmayanto Snp-a.284); Dhp.83 (cp. on this passage Morris J.P.T.S. 1893, 39–41); same expln as prec. at Dhp-a.ii.156; Thig.506
atthakāma well-wishing, desirous of good, benevolent Ja.i.241; Ja.v.504 (anukampakā +) sic lege for attakāmarūpā, MN.i.205, MN.iii.155, cf. SN.i.44 with ib. SN.i.75; AN.ii.21; Pv.iv.3#51; Vv-a.11 (in quotation) Pv-a.25, Pv-a.112; mānakāma proud SN.i.4; lābhakāma fond of taking; grasping, selfish AN.ii.240; dūsetu˚ desiring to molest Vin.iv.212; dhamma˚ Snp.92; pasaṃsa˚ Snp.825 So frequently in comb. w. inf., meaning, willing to wishing to, going to, desirous of: jīvitu˚, amaritu˚ dātu˚, daṭṭhu˚, dassana˚, kātu˚, pattu˚, netu˚, gantu˚ bhojetu˚, etc. -sakāma (-adj.) willing Ja.v.295.

  • -akāma
  1. not desiring, i.e. unwilling: MN.ii.181; mayhaṃ akāmāya against my wish (= mama anicchantiyā) Pv.ii.10#7, Ja.v.121, Ja.v.183, etc.
  2. without desire, desireless passionless Snp.445.
  • -nikkāma same Snp.1131.

  • -agga (nt.) the greatest pleasure, intense enjoyment MN.ii.43; Vv.16#3 (= Vv-a.79, attributed to the Paranimmita-vasavattino-devā);

  • -aggi the fire of passion Ja.v.487;

  • -ajjhosāna (nt.) attachment to lust and desire No. 10 in kāmacchanda series (see above);

  • -ādhikaraṇa having its cause in desire MN.i.85; SN.i.74;

  • -ādhimutta bent upon the enjoyment of sensual pleasures AN.iii.168; Ja.vi.159;

  • -ānusārin pursuing worldly pleasures Ja.ii.117

  • -andha blinded by passion Ud.76 = Thag.297; - ābhibhū overcoming passions, epithet of the Buddha DN.ii.274

  • -ābhimukha bent upon lust, voluptuous Pv-a.3;

  • -āvacara “having its province in kāma,” belonging to the realm of sensuous pleasures. This term applies to the eleven grades of beings who are still under the influence of sensual desires and pleasures, as well as to all thoughts and conditions arising in this sphere of sensuous experience DN.i.34 (of the soul, explained DN-a.120: cha k˚-devapariyāpanna); Ja.i.47; Dhs.1, Dhs.431; Pts.1, Pts.84, Pts.85, Pts.101 Vb.324; Vism.88, Vism.372, Vism.452 (rūpa˚, arūpa˚, lokuttara), Vism.493 (of indriyas), Vism.574; Pv-a.138. -kamma an action causing rebirth in the six kāma-worlds Dhs.414, Dhs.418 Dhs.431; -devatā Pv-a.138 (+ brahmādevatā) and -devā the gods of the pleasure-heavens Ja.i.47; Ja.v.5; Ja.vi.99; Vism.392; or of the kāmâvacara-devaloka Ja.vi.586, -bhūmi and -loka the plane or world of kāma Pts.i.83; Ja.vi.99 see also avacara;

  • -agga (nt.) the greatest pleasure, intense enjoyment MN.ii.43; Vv.16#3 (= Vv-a.79, attributed to the Paranimmita-vasavattino-devā);

  • -assāda the relish of sensual pleasures Pv-a.262; DN-a.i.89, DN-a.i.311;

  • -ātura affected by passion, love-sick Ja.iii.170;

  • -ārāma pleasure-loving AN.iv.438 (gihī k-bhogī, ˚ratā, ˚sammuditā);

  • -ālaya, the abode of sensual pleasure (i.e. kāma-loka) SN.i.33 = Snp.177; Snp.306;

  • -āvaṭṭa the whirlpool of sensuality Ja.ii.330;

  • -āsava the intoxication of passion, sensuality lusts; def. as kāmesu kāma-chando, etc. (see above k-chando) Vb.364, Vb.374; Dhs.1097; as the first of four impurities, viz. k˚, bhava˚, diṭṭhi˚, avijjā˚ at Vin.iii.5 (the detachment from which constitutes Arahantship) Vb.373; Dhs.1096, Dhs.1448; as three (prec. without diṭṭhi˚) at Iti.49; Vb.364; cp. DN.i.84; DN.ii.81; DN.iii.216; MN.i.7;

  • -itthi a pleasure-woman, a concubine Vin.i.36; Ja.i.83; Ja.v.490; Ja.vi.220;

  • -upabhoga the enjoyment of pleasures Vv-a.79;

  • -upādāna clinging to sensuality arising from taṇhā, as k˚ diṭṭhi˚ sīlabbata˚, attavāda DN.iii.230; MN.i.51; Vb.136, Vb.375; Vism.569;

  • -ūpapatti existence or rebirth in the sensuous universe. These are three:

  1. Paccupaṭṭhita-kāmā (including mankind four lowest devalokas, Asuras, Petas and animals)
  2. Nimmāna-ratino devā,
  3. Paranimmita-vasavattino devā DN.iii.218; Iti.94.
  • -ūpasaṃhita endowed with pleasantness: in formula rūpā (saddā, etc.) iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā k˚ rajaniyā “forms (sounds etc. = any object of sense), desirable, lovely, agreeable pleasant, endowed with pleasantness, prompting desires” DN.i.245 = MN.i.85; MN.i.504; DN.ii.265; MN.iii.267; Vv-a.127.
  • -esanā the craving for pleasure. There are three esanās: kāma˚, bhava˚, brahmacariya˚ DN.iii.216 DN.iii.270; AN.ii.42; Vb.366; Iti.48; SN.v.54;
  • -ogha the flood of sensual desires AN.iii.69; DN.iii.230, DN.iii.276; Vb.375 Vism.141; Dhs-a.166; Cnd.178 (viz. kām˚, bhav˚ diṭṭh˚, avijj˚).
  • -kaṇṭaka the sting of lust Ud.27
  • -kara the fulfilment of one’s desires Ja.v.370 (= kāmakiriyā)
  • -karaṇīya in yathā˚ pāpimato the puppet of the wicked (lit. one with whom one can do as one likes MN.i.173; Iti.56;
  • -kalala the mud of passions Ja.iii.293
  • -kāra the fulfilment of desires Snp.351 = Thag.1271
  • -kārin acting according to one’s own inclination Thag.971; or acting willingly DN-a.i.71;
  • -ūpasaṃhita endowed with pleasantness: in formula rūpā (saddā, etc.) iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā k˚ rajaniyā “forms (sounds etc. = any object of sense), desirable, lovely, agreeable pleasant, endowed with pleasantness, prompting desires” DN.i.245 = MN.i.85; MN.i.504; DN.ii.265; MN.iii.267; Vv-a.127.
  • -kopa the fury of passion Thag.671
  • -gavesin, pleasure-seeking Dhp.99 = Thag.992.
  • -gijjha Ja.i.210 and
  • -giddha greedy for pleasure, craving for love Ja.iii.432; Ja.v.256; Ja.vi.245;
  • -giddhimā, same Ja.vi.525
  • -giddhin f. ˚inī same Mhvs.vi.3.
  • -guṇā (pl.) always as pañca: the five strands of sensual pleasures, viz., the pleasures which are to be enjoyed by means of the five senses; collectively all sensual pleasures. Def. as cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā, etc. AN.iii.411; DN.i.245; DN.ii.271 DN.iii.131, DN.iii.234; Cnd. s.v.; Pts.i.129; as manāpiyehi rūpâdīhi pañcahi kāma-koṭṭhāsehi bandhanehi vā DN-a.i.121 where it is also divided into two groups: mānusakā and dibbā. As constituents of kāmarāga at Ne.28; as vana (desire) Ne.81

In the popular view they are also to be enjoyed in “heaven”: saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjissāmi tattha dibbehi pañcahi k-guṇehi samappito samangibhūto paricāressāmī ti Vin.iii.72; mentioned as pleasures in Nandana SN.i.5; MN.i.505; AN.iii.40, AN.iv.118 in various other connections SN.iv.202; Vv.30#7; Pv.iii.7#1 (˚ehi sobhasi; expl. Pv-a.205 by kāma-koṭṭhāsehi) Pv-a.58 (paricārenti); cp. also kāma-kāmin. As the highest joys of this earth they are the share of men of good fortune, like kings, etc. (mānusakā k˚ guṇā SN.v.409; AN.v.272, but the same passage with “dibbehi pañcahi k˚-guṇehi samappita…” also refers to earthly pleasures, e.g. SN.i.79, SN.i.80 (of kings); SN.v.342 (of a Cakkavatti); AN.ii.125; AN.iv.55, AN.iv.239; AN.v.203; of the soul DN.i.36; Vb.379; other passages simply quoting k-g as worldly pleasures are e.g. SN.i.16 = Snp.171; SN.i.92 SN.iv.196 SN.iv.326; AN.iii.69 (itthirūpasmiṃ); DN.i.60, DN.i.104 Sdhp.261. In the estimation of the early Buddhists however, this bundle of pleasures is to be banned from the thought of every earnest striver after perfection their critique of the kāmaguṇā begins with “pañc’ ime bhikkhave kāmaguṇā…” and is found at various places, e.g. in full at MN.i.85 = Cnd. s.v.; MN.i.454; MN.ii.42 MN.iii.114; quoted at MN.i.92; AN.iii.411; AN.iv.415, AN.iv.430, AN.iv.449 AN.iv.458. Other expressions voicing the same view are gedho pañcannaṃ k˚-guṇānaṃ adhivacanaṃ AN.iii.312 sq. asisūnā… adhivac˚ MN.i.144; nivāpo… adhivac MN.i.155; sāvaṭṭo… adhivac˚ Iti.114. In connection w. rata & giddha Pv-a.3; pahīna MN.iii.295; gathita mucchita MN.i.173; mā te kāmaguṇe bhamassu cittaṃ “Let not thy heart roam in the fivefold pleasures Dhp.371; cittassa vossaggo Vb.370; asantuṭṭha Vb.350. See also Snp.50, Snp.51, Snp.171, Snp.284, Snp.337. -guṇika consisting of fivefold desire, appl. to rāga SN.ii.99; Ja.iv.220; Dhs A.371; -gedha a craving for pleasure SN.i.100 Thag-a.225; -cāgin he who has abandoned lusts Snp.719 -citta impure thought Ja.ii.214; -chanda excitement of sensual pleasure, grouped as the first of the series of five obstacles (pañca nīvaraṇāni) DN.i.156, DN.i.246; DN.iii.234 DN.iii.278; AN.i.231; AN.iv.457; AN.i.134 = Snp.1106; SN.i.99; SN.v.64 Bdhd 72, Bdhd 96, Bdhd 130; Cnd.200, Cnd.420A. Also as the first in the series of ten fetters (saṃyojanāni) which are given above (p. 31) as synonyms of kāma. Enumerated under 1–10 at Cnd.200 as eight in order: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 7, 9, 10 (omitting pipāsā and gedha) Vb.364; Dhs.1114 Dhs.1153; Nd ii.ad chandarāga and bhavachanda; in order 2, 3, 5, 9, 6, 7, 10, 4 at AN.ii.10
■ as nine (like above omitting gedha) at Vb.374; Dhs.1097
■ as five in order: 1, 5, 9, 6, 7, (cp. above passage AN.ii.10) at MN.i.241
■ as four in order: 1, 5, 9, 7 at SN.iv.188
■ as six nīvaraṇas (5 + avijjā) at Dhs.1170, Dhs.1486. See also DN.i.246; DN.iii.234, DN.iii.269; Pts.i.103, Pts.i.108; Pts.ii.22, Pts.ii.26, Pts.ii.44, Pts.ii.169 Vism.141; Sdhp.459; -jāla the net of desires Thag.355 -taṇhā thirst after sensual pleasures; the first of the three taṇhās, viz. kāma˚, bhava˚, vibhava˚ DN.iii.216 DN.iii.275; Iti.50; Vb.365 (where defined as kāmadhātupaṭisaṃyutto rāgo); Dhs.1059, Dhs.1136 (cp. taṇhā: jappāpassage); as the three taṇhā, viz. ponobbhavikā, nandirāga-sahagatā, tatratatr’ âbhinandinī at Vin.i.10 Vb.101; as k-taṇhāhi khajjamāno k-pariḷāhena pariḍayhamāno MN.i.504. See also DN.ii.308; SN.i.131; AN.ii.11; Thig.140; Ja.ii.311; Ja.v.451; Mil.318. -da granting desires, bestowing objects of pleasure and delight; epithet of Yakkhas and of Vessantara (cp. the good fairy) Ja.vi.498, Ja.vi.525; Mhvs.19, Mhvs.9; as sabba˚ Pv.ii.13#8; -dada = prec. Pv.ii.9#18; Pv-a.112; Ja.vi.508; of a stone Mil.243, Mil.252; of Nibbāna Mil.321; Kp.viii.10 esa devamanussānaṃ sabbakāmadado nidhi “this is the treasure which gives all pleasures to gods and men” -dukkha the pain of sensual pleasures Ja.iv.118; -duha granting wishes, like a cow giving milk Ja.v.33 Ja.vi.214; (f.) ˚duhā the cow of plenty Ja.iv.20; -dhātu “element of desire.” i.e. 1 the world of desire, that sphere of existence in which beings are still in the bonds of sensuality extending from the Avīci-niraya to the heaven of the Paranimmita-vasavatti-devas SN.ii.151; Thag.181; also 2sensual pleasures, desires, of which there are six dhātus, viz. kāma˚, vyāpāda, vihiṃsā˚, nekkhamma˚ avyāpāda˚, avihiṃsā˚, Vb.86; Ne.97; DN.iii.215 Vb.363 (as the first three = akusaladhātus); Vb.404 See also DN.iii.275; Thag.378; Ja.v.454; Vism.486 (cp Vb.86). -nandī sensual delight (cp. ˚chanda) AN.ii.11; Dhs.1114, etc. -nidānaṃ acc. adv. as the consequence of passion, through passion, MN.i.85, etc. (in kāmaguṇā passage); -nissaraṇa deliverance from passion, the extinction of passion Iti.61 (as three nissaraṇīyā dhātuyo), cp. AN.iii.245; -nissita depending on craving Mil.11; -nīta led by desire Ja.ii.214, Ja.ii.215; -paṅka the mire of lusts Snp.945; Thig.354; Ja.v.186, Ja.v.256; Ja.vi.230 Ja.vi.505; Mhbv.3; -paṭisandhi -sukhin finding happiness in the association with desire MN.iii.230; -pariḷāha the flame or the fever of passion MN.i.242, MN.i.508; SN.iv.188; AN.i.68 (pariḍayhati, khajjati, etc.); AN.ii.11; Vin.iii.20 Cnd.374 (comd with ˚palibodha); Dhp-a.ii.2; see also kāmacchanda passage. -pāla the guardian of wishes i.e. benefactor Ja.v.221; -pipāsā thirst for sensuality MN.i.242; AN.ii.11, and under k˚-chanda; -bandha Ud.93 and -bandhana the bonds of desire Ja.vi.28, also in the sense of k˚-guṇā, q.v.; -bhava a state of existence dominated by pleasures. It is the second kind of existence, the first being caused by kamma Vb.137 It rests on the effect of kamma, which is manifested in the kāma-dhātu AN.i.223. It is the first form of the 3 bhavas, viz. kāma˚, rūpa˚, arūpa˚ Vin.i.36; DN.iii.216; AN.iv.402; Vism.572. Emancipation from this existence is the first condition to the attainment of Arahantship: kāmabhave asatta akiñcana Snp.176, Snp.1059, Snp.1091 (expl. Snp-a.215: tividhe bhave alaggana); Bdhd 61 ˚parikkhīṇa one who has overcome the desire-existence Dhp.415 = Snp.639. -bhoga enjoyment of sensual pleasures gratification of desires SN.i.74 (sāratta-˚esu giddhā kāmesu mucchitā); Thig.464; Iti.94 (-˚esu paṇḍito who discriminates in worldly pleasures) Ja.ii.65; -bhogin enjoying the pleasures of the senses Vin.i.203, Vin.i.287; Vin.ii.136, Vin.ii.149; DN.iii.124, DN.iii.125; Mil.243 Mil.350, as epithet of the kāmûpapatti-beings Iti.94; as ten kinds AN.v.177; as bringing evil, being blameworthy SN.i.78; cp. AN.iv.281, AN.iv.438; SN.iv.333 sq.; AN.iii.351; Thig.486; Ja.iii.154. ye keci kāmesu asaññatā janā avītarāgā idha k-bhogino (etc.) AN.ii.6, cp. AN.ii.17. kāmabhogī kām’ārāmo kāmarato kāma-sammudita AN.iv.439 -˚seyyā sleeping at ease, way of lying down, the second of the four ways of sleeping (kāmabhogīseyyā vāmena passena) AN.ii.244; -bhojin = ˚bhogin Ud.65; -magga the path of sensuous pleasures Ja.v.67; -matta intoxicated with sensuous pleasures Ja.vi.231; -mucchā sensual stupor or languor SN.iv.189; AN.ii.11; Dhs.1114, etc. (see kāmacchanda); -yoga application to sensuous enjoyment one of the four yogas, viz. kāma˚, bhava˚, diṭṭhi˚ avijjā˚ (cp. āsavā) AN.ii.10; only the first two at Iti.95 cp. DN.iii.230, DN.iii.276; SN.v.59; Dhs-a.166; -rata delighting in pleasures Ja.v.255; -rati amorous enjoyment (as arati Thig.58 and Thig.141; Ja.i.211; Ja.iii.396; Ja.iv.107
■ n’atthi nissaraṇaṃ loke kiṃ vivekena kāhasi bhuñjassu kratiyo mâhu pacchânutāpinī SN.i.128. mā pamādam anuyuñjetha, mā kāmaratisanthavaṃ appamatto hi jhāyanto pappoti paramaṃ sukhan SN.i.25 = Dhp.27 = Thag.884; -rasa the taste of love Ja.ii.329; Ja.iii.170; Ja.v.451 -rāga sensual passion, lust. This term embraces the kāmaguṇā & the three rāgas: Dhs.1131, Dhs.1460 Ne.28; MN.i.433 sq.; DN.iii.254, DN.iii.282; SN.i.22; AN.iii.411; SN.i.13, SN.i.53; SN.iii.155; Thig.68, Thig.77; Pv-a.6; see also k-chanda passage. Relinquishing this desire befits the Saint: Snp.139 (˚ṃ virājetvā brahmalokûpago). As k-rāgavyāpāda Dhs.362; Snp-a.205; -rūpa a form assumed at will Vv-a.80, or a form which enjoys the pleasures of heaven Vb.426; -lāpin talking as one likes DN.i.91 (= DN-a.i.257 yadicchaka-bhāṇin); -lābha the grasping of pleasures, in ˚abhijappin AN.iii.353; -loka the world of pleasures = kāmâvacara, q.v. Sdhp.233, Sdhp.261 -vaṇṇin assuming any form at will, Protean Ja.ii.255 Ja.iii.409 = Vv.33#191; Ja.v.157; Vv.16#3; Vv-a.80, Vv-a.143, Vv-a.146 -vasika under the influence of passions Ja.ii.215; -vitakka a thought concerning some sensuous pleasure, one of the three evil thoughts (kāma˚ vyāpāda˚ vihiṃsā˚ DN.iii.215, DN.iii.226; MN.i.114; AN.i.68; Ja.i.63; Ja.iii.18, Ja.iii.375 Ja.iv.490; Ja.vi.29; Iti.82, Iti.115; Vb.362; Mil.310; -vega the impulse of lust Ja.vi.268; -sagga the heaven of sensuous beings, there are six q.v. under sagga Ja.i.105 Ja.ii.130; Ja.iii.258; Ja.iv.490; Ja.vi.29, Ja.vi.432; at all these passages only referred to, not enumerated; cp. k-âvacara; -saṅkappa- bahula full of aspirations after pleasure AN.iii.145, AN.iii.259; DN.iii.215; -saṅga attachment to passion Ud.75; -saññā lustful idea or thought; one of the three akusalasaññās (as vitakka) DN.i.182; DN.iii.215; MN.ii.262; SN.i.126 Vb.363; Thag.1039; virata k˚ āya SN.i.53 = Snp.175 -saññojana the obstacle or hindrance formed by pleasures; ˚âtiga epithet of Arahant, free of the fetters of lust AN.iii.373 (+ kāmarāgaṃ virājetvā); -sineha love of pleasures Dhs.1097 (see [as ˚sneha MN.i.241; SN.iv.188; AN.ii.10](/define/as ˚sneha MN.i.241; SN.iv.188; AN.ii.10)); see k-chanda; -sukha happiness or welfare arising from (sensual) pleasure, worldly happiness valued as mīlha˚, puthujjana˚, anariya˚, and not worth pursuit: see kāmaguṇā, which passage closes: yaṃ ime pañca k-guṇe paṭicca uppajjati sukhaṃ somanassaṃ idaṃ vuccati k-sukhaṃ AN.iv.415; SN.iv.225; varying with… somanassaṃ ayaṃ kāmānaṃ assādo MN.i.85, MN.i.92 etc.
■ As kāma˚ and nekkhamma˚ AN.i.80; as renounced by the Saint: anapekkhino k˚ ṃ pahāya Dhp.346; SN.i.77; MN.iii.230; Snp.59 (see Cnd. s.v.). See also SN.iv.208; MN.ii.43; Thig.483; Vv.6#17; Ja.ii.140; Ja.iii.396 Ja.v.428; kāmasukhallik’ ânuyoga attachment to worldly enjoyment SN.iv.330; SN.v.421; Vin.i.10; DN.iii.113 Ne.110; Vism.5, Vism.32; -sutta Name of the first sutta of the Aṭṭhakavagga of Sn; -seṭṭhā (pl.) a class of devas DN.ii.258; -sevanā pursuit of, indulgence in, sensuous pleasure Ja.ii.180; Ja.iii.464; -sevin adj. to prec. Ja.iv.118 -hetu having craving as a cause: in ādīnava-section foll. on kāmaguṇā MN.i.86, etc., of wealth SN.i.74 -hetuka caused by passion Thig.355 = Thag-a.243; Ja.v.220, Ja.v.225.

Dhtp (603) & Dhtm (843) paraphrase by “icchāyaṃ,” cp. Vedic kāma, kam = Idg. *qā. cp. Lat. carus, Goth. hōrs, E whore.